BIOL 111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Karyogamy, Gametophyte, Corn Smut

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22 Jul 2016
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LECTURE 5: FUNGI
Pre-Lecture Vocabulary
Cytokinesis The division of the cytoplasm of a dividing cell
Spore - Any asexual reproductive cell capable of developing into an adult organism with gametic
fusion. In plants, haploid spores develop into gametophytes, diploid spore into sporophytes.
Gamete the mature sexual reproductive cell: the egg or sperm
Fertilization – union of gametes. Also known as syngamy
Zygote – The cell created by the union of two gametes, in which the gamete nuclei are also fused. The
earliest stage of the diploid generation
Outline
1. Fungi characteristics, symbioses, importance to ecosystem & phlogeny
2. General life cycles
3. Fungi diversity
Fungi
Absorptive heterotrophs
Most are decomposers (saprobes)
Cell wall of chitin
Most are multicellular and terrestrial
Produce spores (unicellular reproductive structures)
Most of a fungus is underground
o They would be susceptible to desiccation above ground
Hyphae are filaments
Fruiting bodies are formed for sexual reproduction
o Produce spores by meiosis
Spores can also be produced asexually
o Commonly dispersed by wind and water
Most fungi have a filamentous body plan
o Long branged filaments = hyphae
o Tangle mass of hyphae = mycelium
o Provide large surface area - important for absorption
2 hyphal forms
o septate have cross-walls (with pores to allow nutrient diffusion)
o coenocytic – no cell walls, multiple nuclei (these make up most fungi)
have highly evolved hyphae
o hyphae adapted for predation (eg hyphae rings that are adapted to trap and kill nematodes)
o parasitism
o mutualism with plants (can actually grow into place cellsendo- type eg haustorium)
Are extremely important to the growth and survival of plants
o Mycorrhizae = mutualistic fungi that are associated with plant roots
o Ecto-, endo- types
o Fungus receives carbohydrates
o Plant receives minerals, water (increases root’s absorption)
o The partnership of plants and mycorrhizae has a long history
! Scientists have found fossils of mychrrhizae that are older than vascular plants
Fungi have mutualistic relationships with other organisms
Most of a fungus is underground.
Fruiting bodies produce spores by meiosis.
mushroom gill
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