BIOL 111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 57: Reciprocal Altruism, Group Selection, Inclusive Fitness

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23 Jul 2016
BIOL 111 Organismal Biology
89 of 89
!prediction: animals preferentially help their kin because doing so
increases reproduction of alleles they both carry (inclusive
!other possibilities: group selection, reciprocal altruism,
punishment, gaining experience
o!population ecologythe study of demographics (births, deaths) in relation to the
!!understanding population decline and recovery
!!cod fishing in Atlantic Canada has caused a major decline in the cod
!!why have cod not recovered after commercial fishing ceased in Atlantic
!increasing number of seals (consumption of cod by seals in
increasing over time)
!“Allee” effects (benefits of abundance) as populations get
smaller, they have more and more problems
!changes in life history traits (e.g. the number off eggs one
reproduces, the age of reproduction, etc.)
o!cods are decreasing in length, and number of eggs
released is proportional to the female’s length
!cohort effect in some years, reproduction is much more
successful than others
!!population cycles
!an example is the lemming that has a mass “suicide” where many
of them throw themselves of a cliff
!the reason is to increase food and decrease predators for
remaining lemmings
o!community ecology study of interactions between species in relation to the
environment (this can explain species distribution)
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