HIST 205 Lecture 9: Week_9_2015_10_26

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23 Jul 2016
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1. 2015_10_26_Week_9:
Western Expansion, Eastern Expansion, Late Republic:
Aqueduct constructed in 312 BCE.
Roman coinage appears.
Polybius(ca.200-118)
oGreatest Greek historian after.
oWas taken to Rome as political hostage.
oWrote a history of Roman + Greek affair (246-146 BCE)
oBefriended Elites.
oWrote for Greek viewers. (Has to explain more for others to
understand…)
oPolybius critical to other people's work.
oArrogant, but competent.
oChecks his facts.
In 264, Roman territory:
oMost of Italy was part of Roman.
oSicily belonged more to the Carthaginians…
Carthage:
oMost powerful + wealthiest city in Western Mediterranean.
oBiggest Navy.
oFounded by Phoenicians.
In 280: A group of mercenary seize the town of Messana.
oCalled themselves “Mamertines”.
oBegan to cause trouble by raiding neighbouring communities.
King of Syracuse (Hiero II) had enough and decides to attacks them.
Mamertines asks for help from both Rome and Carthage.
Carthage responds first and provides the Mamertines a garrison.
Rome doesn't know what to do. They are conflicted whether to help
Syracuse or not (Syracuse is wealthy…) But, there is a large possibility of
war against the Carthaginian as well.
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Finally Roman decide to go to war…(Was it the People or Senate who
made decision? Unsure of this.)
oSends an army in Sicily.
Mamertines expel garrison from Carthage and welcome Romans. (More
closely linked to Romans, Italian-ish…)
Hiero II decides to ally with Carthage.
oMakes a move at Messana and tries to kick out the
Romans/Mamertines.
oBut, Romans besieges Syracuse.
Hiero II make peace.
Carthaginians still remaining there though...
First Punic War 264-241:
oRoman wants to end Carthaginians reign in Sicily.
oRomans don't have experienced navy like Carthage does...
oGaius Duilius creates Corvus ‘Raven’
Boarding bridge. Metal locked in place to allow ships to
board another.
Battle of Mylae 260:
oRomans win (Roman naval Victory). Challenge Carthaginians.
oDetermine to end war by invasion.
Invasion of Africa (256-5 BC):
oM. Atilius Regulus
oLand in Africa... To defeat them.
oRoman army is wipeout.
oCarthaginians: They hired a Greek army to train the troops.
Battle of Drepana (249):
oRoman suffer naval defeat.
Hamilcar:
oLand operation were very slow.
oAlmost statement.
oThanks to this skilled commander(Carthage).
Rome lost ships to storms... More than to the battles against Carthage.
Navy weaken.
Roman, builds fleet with private donations.
Finally, defeats Carthaginians.
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