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HIST 218 - Chapter 12 (Vietnam, Korea, and Taiwan)

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McGill University
HIST 218
Gavin Walker

Chapter Twelve – Vietnam, Korea, and Taiwan under Colonial Rule Key Dates 1930: Yen Bay Revolt 1941-45: Japanese colonial presence I. Vietnam under the French − French annexation of Cochinchine began in 1862, completed in 1867 − 1887: added Cambodia − 1893: added Laos − together formed Indochinese Union − Emperors forced to comply with French colonial hegemony − most bureaucrats continued serving court − continuance of examination system until 1915 in Tonkin and 1919 in Annam Economic Policy − formation of large French landholdings − French taxation heavier and more direct − pursued policy of infrastructure buildup to facilitate resource extraction − small group of French syndicates controlled almost all operations and profit − export of rice abroad rather than to alleviate local famines − discouraged formation of local industries − forced villages to buy foreign alcohol − some benefits, such as Western medicine Social Change − most Vietnamese continued to work land − increasingly this was not land they owned − wealthy/fortunate landowners increased holdings, while newly opened lands went to wealthy and well-connected absentee landlords − Chinese immigration; retained own identity and maintained by French and Nguyen − small but growing lower bourgeoisie − urban intelligentsia, often from elite families with tradition of Confucianism, who kept distance from French − formed leadership of anticolonial movements − however, diversity of views presented challenges to forming coherent movement − further splinters along regional differences and varying experiences of colonialism − lack of commonalities, such as religion Education − as elsewhere, education helped mold people's values and ideas − changes were slow; reforms inhibited by conservative voices in court − throughout Vietnam, primary education was scarce, limited to urban centres − lycees were extremely few − French ambivalence between assimilation and association − by 1930, only 10 per cent of school-age Vietnamese children went to public or private schools “Educated youths, however small a fraction of the overall population, were to be at the vanguard of nascent revolutionary movements that took the place of older, less radical movements.” New Stirrings of Opposition − minority of scholars originally resisted collaboration − most chose to serve emperor, opting for self-preservation and passive observance of French rule − small attracted to ideas subversive both to colonial rule and traditional order − ironically, France was one source of such ideas, but Vietnamese scholars also reading Chinese reformers − Phan Boi Chau: lacked coherent ideology/program, but advocated expulsion of French − Phan Chu Trinh: more moderate politically, more radical culturally − looked to Fukuzawa Yukichi and Western 'enlightenment' − both showed how, in pursuit of new Vietnamese identity, Vietnamese can selectively borrow from West, just as Chinese and Japanese reformers had Twenties and Thirties − as in China, twenties for Vietnam were years of ferment − young struggled for national identity even while rejecting old culture − flourishing of vernacular press that promoted intellectual and cultural change − French-language press less strictly controlled; vernacular press offered wider audience − new literary style influenced by French called for purging of Chinese expressions and references − cultural radicalism did not necessarily entail political radicalism − 1930: Yen Bay mutiny − in aftermath, thousands were sent to brutal prisons, where they became radicalized “A period in prison was to become almost a requisite for the top Vietnamese Communist leadership.” Rise of Ho Chi Minh − Nationalists suffered blow when thirteen leaders were executed following Yen Bay mutiny − left Vietnam in 1913; unsuccessful at petitioning for Vietnamese self- determination at Versailles − induced him to seek more radical solutions − joined French Socialist Party − founding member of French Communist Party in 1920 − organized revolutionary activities among French expatriates in various parts of Asia II. Korea under Japanese Colonial Rule Key Dates 1905-1910: Japanese Protectorate 1910-1945: colonial Korea 1919-1945: independence movement − Korea's period of colony is shorter than that of Vietnam, but is remembered with equal anger and regret − both began with collusion of traditional authorities − Korean government signed peninsula over to japan in return for favourable treatment − Japan wanted not just buffer state, but also lebensraum − beginning of Japanese ambitions for empire Setting the Stage for Conquest − 1895: Treaty of Shimonoseki – ended China's historical role as Korea's suzerain and protector − Japanese worked through enlightenment faction of young Koreans, who saw Japan was model for Korean modernization − Kabo Reforms (1894): dissolution of traditional ties to China, restructuring of Korean government as constitutional monarchy, ended slavery, civil examinations, class distinctions, and alienated yangban establishment − Queen Min attempted to use Russian influence to check Japan − Japan assassinates Queen Min − resulted in peak Russian influence, 1896 to 1898 − Koreans could not agree on program to bolster defence and assure Korea's survival as a independent country − other European powers demanded and received economic concessions from King Kojong − 'Independence Club:' group of Western-educated intellectuals, argued playing Western powers off each other not best way to ensure independence and sovereignty; regime should build up military defences and reform institutions − countermeasures from establishment; club went out of business in 1898 Japanese Takeover − Kojong enlisted help of Western diplomatic community to counter Japan − first time in Korea history, declares self as 'Emperor' − 1902: Japanese and English alliance, eliminated British objections to Japanese expansion − Portsmouth Treaty: concluded Russo-Japanese war, divided area into spheres of influence − Russians kept railroad interests in Manchuria − Japan gained South Manchurian Railroad from Harbin to Luda, as well as exclusive sphere in Korea − with Russian withdrawal from Korea, and British and U.S. recognition of terms of treaty, no one was left to oppose Japanese colonialism − Taft-Katsura Agreement (1905): US non-intervention in Korea for Japanese non-intervention in Philippines − 1905-1910: Korean protectorate − Japanese control of foreign relations and defence in 1905 − legal system in 1907 − Ito Hirobumi sent to control Japan as 'resident-general' − Ito's assassination in 1909 led to full annexation in 1910 − local leaders raised irregular militia units to resist Japanese presence − augmented by angry Korean farmers who foresaw Japanese land grabs − Korean population began rallying for 'self-strengthening' − one reason for growth of Christianity in Korea was its appeal as alternative to Japanese ideas − 1907: Ito orders disbanding of royal Korean army − results in significant rise in Korean resistance − forced King Kojong, who had organized one last attempt at diplomatic assistance, to abdicate − 1909: following Ito's assassination, and after arranging pensions, payments, and honours for leading yangban noblemen, Japan annexed Korean on August 22, 1910 − dissolved Choson dynasty and Korea as nation; renamed Chosen Japanese Colonial Rule − lost right to self-governance, to assemble, to association, and to publish/speak freely − many lost lands, which were transferred to Japanese land development companies, which in turn transferred the land to Japanese investors − reorganization of government and bureaucracy resulted in influx of Japanese presence and lost of participation by Koreans − governor-general of Korea was military general, Terauchi Masatake − governor general was “law unto himself in Korea;” was chief executive, chief justice, and its only legislator − personal command of Chosen Army − personal command of police − bureaucratic structures mirror that of Japan, but completely autonomous − separate currency denominated in yen, but issued through Bank of Chosen − Terauchi moved to break all forms of Korean resistance as quickly as possible − forbade political activity − went after groups/individuals that were potential rallying points − imprisoned writers, teachers, and religious leaders − promulgated new laws/regulations − part of prog
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