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Lecture 13

POLI 340 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Arab Spring, Population Pyramid, Human Development Index

Political Science
Course Code
POLI 340
Rex Brynen

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Lecture 13
Political Economy
Large regional disparities
oOil “haves” (GCC states, Libya)
oIntermediate cases (Algeria, Egypt, Syria, Jordan)
oOil “have-nots (Yemen, Sudan)
somewhat less unequal income distribution within most MENA
countries than most other developing regions
Historically unimpressive (non-oil) economic performance
oBetter performance in most cases since 1990
oLow levels of DFI (Direct Foreign Investments)
oTunisia, Egypt both above average prior to Arab Spring
Economic performance ws good for the region and slightly above
average of developing world
Rapid population-growth
oChallenge of unemployment
Signi3cant government role
oEmployment (large public sector)
oTrade, business regulation
oWeak governance (administration, accountability)
Population and employment
oDecline of public sector employment +urbanization = large informal
sector in some countries
oBig youth bulge
oPopulations have grown faster than the labour market – labour force
expanding faster than labour opportunities
oMost MENA economies have proven relatively resistant to the 2008
Economies have been deeply a>ected by oil
oMassive swings in revenue from oil because price is in constant ?ux
oOil has important secondary e>ects
Oil money ends up taking the form of remittances, although not
all those remittances are distributed
Poverty rates in MENA are higher than Latin America, but much lower than
South Asia, East Asia and Africa
HDI in MENA is lower than Latin America and East Asia but much higher than
South Asia and Africa
Rentierism: A state which derives all or a substantial portion of its national
revenues from the rent of indigenous resources to external clients
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