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Neuro 3.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 211
Professor
Yogita Chudasama
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYC 211 How do neurons communicate with each other? Dr. Yogita Chudasama Stewart Biology, Room N8/4 The Synapse of the dendritic membrane of the receiving neuron.n of the sending neuron and a portion Synaptic transmission is the transmission of messages from one neuron to another through a synapse 1 Detail of the Synapse Synaptic vesicles contain molecules of neurotransmitter. They attach to the presynaptic membrane and release neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft Synaptic cleft is the space between the pre- and postsynaptic membranes. It is filled with an extracellular fluid. Presynaptic membrane is Postsynaptic membrane is the membrane of the the membrane of the terminal button (the receiving cell either on the sending cell). This is soma or the dendrite where neurotransmitter is released Postsynaptic Potentials (PSP) 2 Postsynaptic Potentials (PSP) + Sodium-potassium channels keep Na outside the cell. When sodium channels are opened, the influx of Na+ causes a depolarisation - Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP) Postsynaptic Potentials (PSP) If potassium channels open, K leave the cell. Potassium is positively charged. It’s efflux causes a hyperpolarisation - Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP) 3 Postsynaptic Potentials (PSP) PSP’s are influenced by other ions depending on the state of the membrane. E.g. if the membrane is resting, Cl! will have no effect, but if the membrane has been depolarised, Cl! channels will permit Cl! to enter the cell thus neutralising the EPSP. Neural Integration The interaction of the excitatory and inhibitory synapses on a particular neuron is called neural integration If several excitatory synapses are If several inhibtitory synapses are active at the same time, the EPSP active at the same time as the will travel toward the axon and the EPSP, the IPSP will diminish the axon will fire size of the EPSP and prevent the axon from firing 4 Neural inhibition does not always produce behavioural inhibition For example, a group of neurons may prevent me from putting my hand in the fire. If, however, those neurons are inhibited (i.e. prevented from producing an IPSP), those neurons will NOT suppress my behaviour and I will put my hand in the fire. ! Inhibition of inhibitory neurons makes the behaviour more likely to occur Neural excitation does not always produce behavioural excitation For example, when we are dreaming, a group of inhibitory neurons are activated to prevent us from acting out our dreams. If this activation fails to occur, people will act out their dreams. ! Excitation of neurons that inhibit a behaviour, suppresses that behaviour Psychopharmacology: Drugs and their Effectiveness 5 What is a Drug? a)  A chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention or diagnosis of disease or used to enhance physical or mental well being. b)  A chemical substance that has “perceived” beneficial effects on perception, consciousness, personality and behaviour (e.g. narcotics, hallucinogens). Some drugs can cause addiction if abused (e.g. cocaine, heroin) c)  An exogenous chemical that significantly alters the function of certain cells when taken in relatively low doses. Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and behaviour. Routes of Drug Administration Drugs have to reach their site of action which is the point where drug molecules interact with molecules located on or in cells of the body. 1.  Intravenous (IV) injection - into the vein 2.  Intraperitoneal (IP) injection - into the abdominal wall (peritoneal cavity) 3.  Intramuscular (IM) injection - into the muscle 4.  Subcutaneous (SC) injection - into the space between the skin 5.  Oral administration - by mouth 6.  Sublingual administration - under the tongue 7.  Intrarectal administration - as suppositories 8.  Inhalation - by smoking 9.  Topical administration - through the skin 10.  Intracerebral administration - directly into the brain 6 Routes of Drug Administration Drugs have to reach their site of action which is the point where drug molecules interact with molecules located on or in cells of the body. 1.  Intravenous (IV) injection - into the vein 2.  Intraperitoneal (IP) injection - into the abdominal wall (peritoneal cavity) 3.  Intramuscular (IM) injection - into the muscle 4.  Subcutaneous (SC) injection - into the space between the skin 5.  Oral administration - by mouth 6.  Sublingual administration - under the tongue 7.  Intrarectal administration - as suppositories 8.  Inhalation - by smoking 9.  Topical administration - through the skin 10.  Intracerebral administration - directly into the brain Routes of Drug Administration Drugs have to reach their site of action which is the point where drug molecules interact with molecules located on or in cells of the body. 1.  Intravenous (IV) injection - into the vein 2.  Intraperitoneal (IP) injection - into the abdominal wall (peritoneal cavity) 3.  Intramuscular (IM) injection - into the muscle 4.  Subcutaneous (SC) injection - into the space between the skin 5.  Oral administration - by mouth 6.  Sublingual administration - under the tongue 7.  Intrarectal administration - as suppositories 8.  Inhalation - by smoking 9.  Topical administration - through the skin 10.  Intracerebral administration - directly into the brain 7 Dose Response Curve A dose response curve is the magnitude of an effect of a drug as a function of the am
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