PSYC 211 Lecture Notes - Neurofibrillary Tangle, Lysosome, Down Syndrome
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Neurological Disorders – 28/03/12
-uncontrollable growth of cells that has no function.
i) Benign – encapsulated – tumor has distinct border b/w tumor and surround. A surgeon can remove it
ii) Malignant – infiltrates the surrounding tissue. No distinction. Can give rise to metastasis in which
tumor cells go through the vascular system and grow elsewhere.
Any tumor in the brain is harmful. Two ways:
1) Occupies space and compresses the tissue or block the flow of CSF.
2) The tumor invades the surrounding tissue as it grows and destroys the cells in it’s path.
Glioma (tumors of the glial cells) is the most common and serious type of tumor.
Ependymoma (ependymal cells in the ventricle)
Meduloblastoma (cells in roof of fourth ventricle)
Seizure Disorders (Epilepsy)
-sudden, excessive activity of cerebral neurons. In the motor region = convulsion.
Partial seizures have a definite focus and remain localized. Simple partial seizures involve changes to
consciousness. Complex partial seizures lead to loss of consciousness.
Diagnosis relies on EEG, epilepsy is associated with bursts of high amplitude EEG spikes which occur
during an attack.
Simple seizures during sleep ARE NOT sleep disorders and occur during REM
Generalized Seizures (Grand Mal)
-widespread involving most of the brain. A grand mal seizure is the most severe. Proceeding the seizure
there are changes in mood, sudden jerks of muscular activity, an aura (a peculiar sensation of
psychological change) like a bad smell, hallucination, bright lights, euphoria. Nature of the aura depends
on the starting focus.
Tonic –Colonic Phases:
Beginning – muscles contract, arms outstretch rigidly, involuntary cry, rigid posture for 15 seconds
End – muscles tremble, jerk convulsively, eyes roll, face is contorted, sweating and salivation, after 30
seconds breathing begins again and muscles relax. Exhausted sleep.
Cause some level of brain damage due to muffled respiration.
Petit Mal (absence seizure)
Vacant look, blinking repeatedly, unresponsive.
Can occur up to 100 times a day. They can be disruptive to normal activities. Often go undiagnosed.
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