PSYC 213 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Orienting Response

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23 Jul 2016
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central bottleneck: the theory that we have a filter through which
information relevant to only one task at a time can pass
!unclear whether this filter acts before or after perceptual processing
of information, some evidence (like the cocktail party phenomenon:
our attention can be grabbed by someone saying our name)
suggests that it happens after processing, because clearly at least
some information is being processed and ignored if the attention-
grabbing stimulus is also processed
divided attention: the theory that we are capable of dividing our attention
between two tasks simultaneously
set: top-down organization of cognitive processes that facilitates attention in
one area while inhibiting it in other areas
attentional set: a temporary organization of cognitive processes that
facilitates responses when attending to a particular task
task switching: switch between carrying out two different tasks, exacts a
switch cost, which is a dip in the performance level on the task, occurs
whether or not the switch was voluntary
additive factors logic: if we’re capable of performing two tasks
simultaneously without interference, then they draw on different attentional
resources
interacting factors logic: if we’re incapable of performing two tasks
simultaneously without interference, then they draw on the same attentional
resources
backward masking: the experimental procedure of presenting a stimulus and
then masking it with another stimulus, allows study of the priming effect of
the original stimulus
!stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA): time period between the
presentation of the stimulus and its masking
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