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Lecture Notes on October 15

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PSYC 215
John Lydon

Self Presentation Summary - We have actual and desired identities - We try to communicate these to others - Other may have different expectations about us that compete with self presentation and self verification - What we do influences their impressions of us but not as much as we think - Therefore don't worry so much about how you look - Hitch video, picking up a woman who is hard to get Start of New Lecture Material - Ronald Reagan anecdote (Walter Cronkite) - Hogan ideas: - Self presentation: President Carter (nerd) was super book smart, but Reagan (over-achiever) could get people to go along with him - You need to win people over in order for your ideas to have impact Focus of This Week: Goals & Self Regulation Goals - Internal representations of desired states - Things you hope to do, accomplish, be - Single goals cannot be understood in isolation - need to know context in the full range of goals Goal Initiation/Adopting Goals - We may choose goals for - instrumental awards (make money, get that trip, pay rent... etc) - to express a desired identity - Influenced by others - explicitly - implicitly (goal contagion - someone else is doing something, it may rub off on you) - Presence or thoughts of significant others automatically activates goals with sig other - Role models - Social comparison: maybe superstars don't always deflate us but sometimes inspire us - Superstar more likely to inspire you in goal pursuit if it's relevant to you - Inspire more when what they're doing seems attainable (I could still do that too) - Resist controlling others - Romeo and Juliet effect: you want what you can't have - Taking away freedom can cause reactance: wanting to exert freedom more since it's taken away from you Managing goals - Advancing distal motives and goals over concrete, proximal motives when the two conflict - Willpower - self control - Marshmallow Test - predicted coping with stress in early adulthood, less substance abuse, less obesity, higher SAT scores - buffer against borderline personality disorder - How does it work? Strategies - Attentional focus - how much can you distract yourself - focus on shape more than taste - Representations of the temptation - imagined it as a cloud or cotton ball - Self Control - Important goals take time - We are likely to encounter setback and interferences on the way - How to we engage in self control when other things come along the way? - Impulse: - something specific, has strong incentive value (hedonic), feels really good, provides immediate short term gratification - elicits behaviour (can even be implicit - we sometimes don't even know we are acting on an impulse) - Why not give in to impulses? - adaptive if you have no longterm goals, you are only living for today and for yourself, you lack interpersonal goals - Desire - an affectively charged motivation toward a specific object or person or actively associated with pleasure/relief from displeasure - Are ok up to a point - Problem lies when acting on the desire conflicts with other goals - Temptation: when the desire conflicts with existing goals - A desire you have may become a new goal if you drop one - Origins of Desire - We evaluate a stimulus, it is evaluated in relation to an internal need and experiences - ex) chocolate cake - we know we will get hungry eventually and we know it's really good - Expectancy Value Theories - Need - how hungry am I? - Incentive value - food - Probability of motive
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