PSYC 471 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Wayne Gretzky, Wesley Chu, Spatial Memory

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9 Feb 2016
Department
Course
Lecture 7 How did Tiger Woods become the best golfer in
history?
Research on the acquisition of expert performance
How did Tiger Woods become the best golfer in history?
Research on the acquisition of expert performance
Objectives:
(1) To consider the role of ability versus eort (or motivation) in achieving one's goals.
motivation - look at accomplishment in various areas, there is an equation where
we assume our success is a mix of eort and talent
(2) To understand the unique importance of deliberate practice in promoting expertise.
in the Talent Code, “deep practice"
Relevant Readings
Ericsson, et al 2009. Toward a Science of Exceptional Achievement.
very controversial at first
he made the argument at that all o us are wrong in thinking that ability and
eort lead to success - he cast out talent
thought as an outlier, now people take him seriously
he has moved the way researchers and practitioners think of development of
talents
The Talent Code
Class survey
Expertise most common in:
Sports 52%
Music 22%
Fine arts 15%
Language Arts 11%
When did you start training and how many hours a week?
Start Age = 8
Hrs per week = 8
To what extent do you attribute your good performance to …. everyone realizes it takes
both things (teacher’s guess: we will shift this opinion)
Natural Talent 45%;
Training and Practice 55%
the research Koestner will show will shift us, or provoke us
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Film Clips
Tiger Woods
Music Prodigy
Basketball Practice
Expert performance
Consistently superior performance on specified set of representative tasks for the
domain that can be administered to any subject.
Erickson’s definition
very precise and particular
we should never trust someone when they say they are very good or an expert in
something
we need to assess in a very methodical and specific manner
easier to assess in some areas than others
some professions - where some people present themselves as experts, but if
you test them under controlled conditions, they are actually not that good
e.g.
wine connoisseurs: two wines and let them test, they don’t do
anything better than chance
financial advisors: advise where to put your money, accuracy and
usefulness is basically random (the market is had to predict)
controlled way: you provide information regarding the bond, then
track performance
psychology - psychotherapy: no relation between the years of
experience and outcome
some evidence that experience helps - medicine, but research on
diagnostic skills: if you have a doctor who has been practicing for
two years, he will be better an a newly graduate; but after 2 years,
it’s no better
chess: you bring people into the lab, show them a point in a game
between 2 chess masters, ask for the best next move, grade and evaluate
too see if they are actually choosing the next best move
we always have to think about how we can really test - identify what
mechanism is associated with expertise
Par at golf
Koestner’s flow activity
good feedback
pretty clear whether you are performing at an expert level
The expertise of Tiger Woods
a prodigy - high level of expertise at a very young age
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Youngest Junior Amateur;
Youngest Amateur Champ;
3 x Amateur Champ;
14 Major Championships;
Wins 30% of tournaments;
Lowest Career Scoring Ave;
Highest Career Earnings
He is 37 years old
What role do talent and motivation play in the acquisition of expert performance?
Traditional view;
historically, it’s some kind of natural talent, god-given, 1800s, 1900s people think
this way
talent reflects god’s desire/wish
gymnasts: parents believe that their kids have a natural talent and it is their job
to bring out this talent and make it known
Most common current view;
genetic endowment
“Giftedness for a given activity is necessary to attain the highest level of performance
in that activity.”
Performance = Ability x Eort
if you look at country like Canada, many boys start playing hockey at age of 7,
but only several succeed, then as time move on, only a few make it to the elite
level
the assumption is each one of us has a limit in how far we can go in a field and
that’s based on genetic endowment
Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences: (Harvard)
E used his theory as a representative of this natural gift theory
7 dierent kinds of intelligence, can be measured, based on genetics in the
brain, biological system
largely independent, dierent for dierent people
each associated with outstanding performance in certain fields
H argues that almost all education we have focus on the first 2 ones
last two very interesting - for psychologists (understand yourself and understand
how people work together)
H developed ways to assess all these 7 intelligences
e.g. interpersonal:
give 15 sticks with pictures of classmates to a kid, let the kid
construct which kids are friends, where do they play, you see how a
4-year-old observe and construct the interpersonal relationships
around him/her
1. linguistic-verbal - creative writers
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