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ECON 2K03 (28)

Econ 2k03 6.docx

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McMaster University
Hannah Holmes

Lower Canada The Quebec Act of 1774 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. III c. 83) setting procedures of governance in the Province of Quebec. The principal components of the Act were: The province's territory was expanded to take over part of the Indian Reserve, including much of what is now southern Ontario, plus Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin, and parts of Minnesota. The oath of allegiance was replaced with one that no longer made reference to the Protestant faith. It guaranteed free practice of the Catholic faith. Constitutional act 1791 It reformed the government of the province of Quebec to accommodate the 10,000 English-speaking settlers, known as the United Empire Loyalists, who had arrived from the United States following the American Revolution. Quebec, with a population of 145,000 French speaking inhabitants, was divided in two when the Act took effect on 26 December 1791. The western half became Upper Canada (now southern Ontario) and the eastern half Lower Canada (now southern Quebec). The names Upper and Lower Canada were given according to their location on the St. Lawrence River. Upper Canada received English law and institutions, while Lower Canada retained French law and institutions, including seigneurial land tenure, and the privileges accorded to the Roman Catholic Church. Representative governments were established in both colonies with the creation of a legislative assembly; Quebec had not previously had representative government • 1760-1802 • French presence diminished • British in London dominated • British capital became increasingly influential • Fur trade – management and labour divided ethnically and linguistically • Quebec rural • Rapid population growth • After 1791: • Freehold tenure for new lands • Villages sprung up • Direct expenditures by the British • Agriculture grew – wheat boom in late 1700s • Links growing between town and country • Wheat boom ended – why? • 3 poss
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