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GEOG 2RC3 (90)

Lecture movie- 2RC3

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McMaster University
Walter Peace

th Geography 2RC3: June 13 , 2011 Part 3: The Far North (Bone, Ch. 10) Culture Conflict in the Far North  Berger Report (1977) o Perspectives/views of the North, Northern Frontier, Northern Homeland  Metropolitan view resource frontier (NON-NATIVE)  Views by the rest of Canada  Vast limitless resource frontier waiting to be developed  Frontier view vs  Held by non-native people who have been transplanted to the North (resource exploitation)  Homeland view, ancestral homeland (NATIVE)  Clash with views above  Different: Ways of life; human-environment relations; sense of place  Favor of pipeline due to the potential economic benefits  Mode of production: resources, technology, social organization and ideology which permit the factors of production (land, labor, capital) to be combined in order to meet the material, social and spiritual needs of the society, i.e., the way a society uses its resources to meet its needs  Two modes of production in Far North: o Industrial-capitalist o Native  Note: in following comparison, the Native mode is described in its original, unaltered form, prior to acculturation/assimilation Industrial/ Capitalists Native Sectors Government, corporate, small Subsistence (no economy) business Motivation Profit; resources Survival Forces External; government; Internal; band/tribe corporations; markets Scale Economy Global capital Local Economy Energy intensive Labor intensive Medium of Exchange $ Utility, cultural significance of objects Social Structure Unequal, social classes Equal’ classless (role of elders) Human Environment Environment as resource to be Environment as ancestral Relations developed homeland (homeland; TEK) Environmental Impacts Significant Limited non-existent From Davis Inlet to Natuashish  Established in 1967; government decided nomadic Innu should settle in permanent location  Resulted in loss of traditional way of life; alcoholism rates increased  1993: worldwide attention on community-tape of six Innu children sniffing gasoline  Government agreed to move residents (and improve services and facilities)  Cost= $200 million to build new community (Natuashish) on Labrador mainland; move began in December 2002; took seven months to complete  Despite new town and additional expenditures of $70 million, social problems remain (substance abuse, violence, unemployment etc.)  2008- vote on alcohol ban passed (76-74)  Bone (2003, 186) identifies three “defining questions that shape their (Aboriginal’s) new World” o Can Aboriginal individuals, families and corporations strengthen their economic position by participating in the market economy? o Can they retain and perhaps redefine their Aboriginal identity and culture while participating in this economy? o Can Nunavut as the highest level of government achieved by an Aboriginal group, serve as both a cultural and economic model for Aboriginal peoples?  These questions are set in the context of three broader questions about Canada’s north: o Can the resource economy support the northern labor force: o How can the governments ensure that the resource industry limits its impact on the environment? o Is there a place of Aboriginal peoples in the recourse economy? Summary Introduction  Region: an area of the earth’s surface defined by its distinctive human or natural characteristics (Bone, 2008, 27)  Regions are not naturally occurring phenomena; they are intellectual creations devised (usually by geographers) for a particular purpose  Why is it necessary to divide Canada into regions? o Pedagogical reasons o Practical reasons  Bone’s regional scheme (see Figure 1.2) justified as follows: o Readily understood by Canadians o Associated with physical features, natural resources and economic activities o Reflects the political structure of Canada o Facilitates the use of statistical data o Contains a sense of regional identity o Reveals regional economic strengths and cultural presence o (Do you agree with these justifications?)  Regional scheme presented in lectures: o How/why does it differ from Bone’s regional scheme? o How are these differences justified>  Question: What are the strengths and weaknesses of these two regional schemes? (note that there are numerous other regional schemes that can be justified, depending on your purpose, i.e, there are no right or wrong answers) A comparison of the two regional schemes Region Bone Lectures Atlantic Canada -Downward transitional -Hinterland -Includes Labrador -Includes part of Labrador -Boundaries political -Boundaries largely political Ontario/Quebec -Core region -
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