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Lecture 8

NURSING 2LA2 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Thyroid, Corpus Luteum, Releasing And Inhibiting Hormones

Course Code
Ruth Hannon

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Introduction to Endocrine System
Making hormones and circulating them throughout the body
Brodcasts hormonal messages throughout the body (not a direct transport
Eects can last days rather than miliseconds like the nervous system
Eg growing a muscle gradually using hormones
They are slow to act allowing for gradual growth. Eg smooth muscles of the
uterus contracting because of hormones. One would want them to act slowly
rather than shoot out the baby
Blood borne released by ductless glands
Many are neuro transmitters
Eg epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine can cross synapses but can also be
released by the adrenal glands making them hormones
Most drugs are hormones (insulin etc.)
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Every cell produces hormones as means of communication between one
Main organs (endocrine glands)
HYPOTHALAMUS- talks to the pituitary gland
PINEAL GLAND- produces melitonin
THYROID GLAND- thyroid hormone
ADRENAL GLANDS- produce large amounts (grams even!) of hormones
Temporary endocrine glands exist- in female: corpus luteum producing

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Endocrine tumors exist which release hormones
Pathology Associated With Endocrine System
Gigantism- hypersecretion of Growth Hormone(GH) --->small tumor which
releases GH can be the cause of this
Cushings desiese -------> hypersecretion of cortisol-----> tumor creates more
cortisol (coming from the adrenal cortex)
Diabetes-----> pancreas makes little to no insulin
Hypothyroidism-----> low amount of circulating thyroid hormone----> if
hyperthyroidism goiter may be caused

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Hormone Action
Endocrine- make a hormone in a cell, released into the blood, =oats along
until it comes across a receptor for it
Paracrine- work on cells really nearby
NO relaxes the blood vessels made in the cells of the vessel itself
Autocrine-work on the exact cell they were produced from (short lived)
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Signal Transduction for Hormones
Hormone message must be translated to elicit a response from a cell
2 types of receptors which convert it -
Hydrophilic- binds on outside of cell (needs to be converted be able to have
an eect on the inside of the cell)
Lipophilic- wander through the membrane and have receptors on the inside
to change the cell
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