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Lecture 12

PSYCH 1F03 Lecture 12: 12

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Joe Kim

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INFLUENCE OF OTHERS I: Common sense does not always equal research findings. Presence of Others: Norman Triplett first formal study of social psychology. o Behaviours performed in a group are different from behaviours performed individually o Observed that cyclists raced faster when competing against each other in a group vs. against a clock. Co-Actor another individual performing the same task. Audience a group of people watching an individual perform a task. Social Facilitation increased performance that occurs in the presence of co- actors or an audience. The presence of others can sometimes hinder, rather than help, a performance Zajoncs (zye-ontz) Resolution: offered a solution to the problem of Social Facilitation Presence of others increases arousal to improve performance on well-practiced tasks. Simple tasks, which you have mastered, with plentiful practice performance is enhanced. Complex tasks that are foreign to you, with little practice performance is hindered. GROUP PRESENCE HINDERS COMPLEX TASK PERFORMANCE, BUT FACILITATES WELL-PRACTICED ONES Social Learning Theory: Popularized by Albert Bandura; suggests that we learn appropriate behaviours by modeling and imitating the behaviour of others. Different from basic conditioning because you do not require explicit reinforcement to imitate said behaviours. Bobo Doll Experiment: Social learning theory was best demonstrated with this Children (between ages 3-6) were asked to play with toys, with an adult in the room modelling passive or aggressive behaviour towards a Bobo Doll. Those who viewed an aggressive play model were more likely to subsequently display aggressive behaviour to the doll, with no explicit reinforcement. Children mimic observed behaviours, even when afflicting harm to other people. Conformity: Autokinetic Effect Experiment: Conducted by Muzafer Sherif; had a perceptual illusion where one had to track where a dot moved. Trick is: did not actually move; eyes mistake the movement of the image on your retina as actual motion of the light. If in a group over several days: results converged with what the other group members thought, even if the starting points differed; example of norm formation. Norm Formation leads to convergence in behaviour, even in the presence of outliers. o Ex. laugh tracks in shows hearing the laughter may convince you that the dialogue is funnier than it is. Aschs Stimuli: Individuals had to identify which of the 3 comparison lines matched the standard line given. One subject, surrounded by six other confederates; they answer before the subject does. 75% of subjects conformed to an incorrect answer for at least one trial; 37% of the average responses conformed to an incorrect answer. Subjects doubt their own perceptions when it conflicts with that of others. Normative Function the role of others in setting standards for our conduct based on a fear of rejection. Comparative Function the role of others in providing information about an ambiguous situation. It allows us to compare our ideas against information and perceptions from others around us. Group Dynamics: James Stoner risky shift effect. o Groups made riskier decisions than individuals before the group discussion part of the experiment. o Sometimes it is opposite, where the individual makes risker decisions than the group. o More risky or more cautious extremes are based off of the initial views of the group members Group Polarization group decision-making strengthens the original inclinations of the individual group members; leads to more extreme views. o The group consensus is pushed to the extreme of the individual members decisions. Groupthink a group decision-making environment that occurs when group cohesiveness becomes so strong, it overrides realistic appraisals of reality and alternative opinions. o Coined by Irving Janis; mob mentality; groups overestimate their might and right. o Groups think they are unquestionably right and all other groups are wrong. o Rationalized group decisions; high pressure to conform. Preventing Groupthink: Be impartial group leader should remain neutral. Critical evaluation allow group members to disagree; playing devils advocate. Subdivide the group make separate decisions, then come together to discuss the differences between them. Give a second chance in order to reveal any further doubts/issues. The Bystander Effect: Kitty Genovese was murdered in NYC; ~38 witnesses that did nothing to help her out. Two Decisions to Action: o One must decide whether the situation is an emergency. o If it is an emergency, should I be the one to respond? The more people present, the less likely a single person takes to realize an emergency. Latane and Darley released smoke into a room of individuals to see how long it would take for them to report it. o Took longer for individuals in groups to report it than solely individuals. Collective Ignorance when everyone in a group see nobody responding in a situation, they conclude that the situation is not
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