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Lecture 4

PSYC 1103 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Reinforcement, Operant Conditioning


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1103
Professor
Vicki Goodfellow- Duke
Lecture
4

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Operant conditioning day 3
Operant Extinction-
Weakening and eventual disappearance of a response because it is no longer
reinforced.
When previously reinforced behaviours no longer pay off, we are likely to
abandon and replace them with more successful ones.
Positive reinforcement: A stimulus is added to increase the likelihood of a
response (i.e., behaviour).
Your boss gives you a bonus AFTER you work hard.
A child gets a dessert AFTER eating dinner
Example: Negative Reinforcement
An aversive stimulus is removed to increase the likelihood of a behaviour. The
likelihood the boy will clean is increased because cleaning removes the negative
stimulus (nagging).
Punishment
A response is weakened by the outcomes that follow it.
Rat gets a shock (a punisher) when enters a zone; a consequence that weakens a
behaviour.
Reinforces are defined in terms of their observable effects on behaviour. If the food
doesn’t increase lever pushing, then for this rat, food, is not a reinforcer.
Two types of punishment
1. Negative Punishment: A desired stimulus is removed after a undesired
behaviour resulting in the behaviour occurring less often in the future.
2. Positive punishment involves adding a negative consequence after an undesired
behavior is emitted to decrease future responses.
Examples
Positive punishment: “You’re playing video games instead of practicing the
piano, so I am justified in YELLING at you.”
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