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PSYC 2265 (23)
Dave Cann (23)
Lecture 15

PSYC 2265 Lecture 15: PSYC 2265 – Lecture 15 – Memory: Retrieval

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PSYC 2265
Dave Cann

PSYC 2265 – Lecture 15 – Memory: Retrieval Long-Term Memory Retrieval • Expectations confirmed or denied (Tversky, 1973) o Participants were told prior to viewing a study list that they were going to either get a free recall test or an old/new recognition test o Half of participants did receive the test they were told to expect o Other half of participants did not receive the test they were told to expect o Participants did better on the test they were expecting • The story o Why did participants do best when they get the kind of test they expect? ➢ When studying, they are aware of how they will be tested, and they encode info in a way that will make it easy to retrieve in the test context ➢ We tailor our encoding to the expected retrieval context and when we are right, we retrieve better • Tulving & Pearlstone (1966) o Encoded 24 categorized lists with 2 target words ➢ Type of spice: garlic, parsley o Remember target words (garlic, parsley) ➢ Free recall ▪ Less than half recalled ➢ Cued recall (category names provided) ▪ 75% recalled • Encoding specificity principle (ESP) o Successful retrieval ➢ Depends on the amount of overlap between what’s happening at retrieval and what’s happened at encoding ➢ Memory retrieval is aided by a cue to the extent that the cue helps reconstruct the encoding situation • Thomson & Tulving, 1970 o Demonstrating encoding specificity principle ➢ Encoded weakly related word pairs ▪ Plant-bug (bug was target) ➢ Cued recall (cue was varied) ▪ Strong cue (strongly related to target) o Insect ▪ Weak cue o Plant ▪ Weak cue was the better cue • ESP: Is it a general principle? o How wide ranging is this principle? Do internal and external contexts influence memory retrieval? ➢ Context-dependency effects • External context o Examination of state-dependent learning with SCUBA divers o Drivers saw the study list either on land or underwater, then had their memory tested either on land or underwater ➢ Participants who learned on land did best when tested on land, and those who learned underwater
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