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Lecture 5

PHYS1041 Notes Week 5

by OneClass222616 , Winter 2014
2 Pages
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Department
Physics
Course Code
PHYS 1041
Professor
Dr.David Fleming
Lecture
5

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Physics 1041
March 3rd
Pressure
fluid: matter that flows under influence of external force
comprised of both liquids and gases
fluids are incompressible; density is constant
gases are compressible; density is variable
density:
)(
)(
3
mvolume
kgmass
=
ρ
density of water:
3
/.1000
2
mkg
OH
=
ρ
density of mercury:
3
/.13600 mkg
Hg
=
ρ
pressure: measure normal force per unit area exerted by a fluid
pressure:
)(
)(
2
marea
Nforce
P
=
the unit of N/m2 is a Pascal (Pa)
Example: Pressure changes with depth in a fluid
pressure at water surface is the same as air pressure
pressure increases as depth increases
for a fluid to remain at rest, net force everywhere must be equal to zero
more and more fluid is above you pushing you down the deeper you are; pressure
must increase to counteract that effect
this is called hydrostatic equilibrium
hydrostatic equilibrium:
ghPP
O
ρ
+=
P=pressure
PO=pressure of liquid at surface
ρ=density of liquid
g=acceleration due to gravity
h=height (depth) of fluid
barometer: instrument used to measure pressure
air pressure acts on an open pool/liquid
there is no pressure inside a barometer; when pressure comes from outside, it
causes the liquid inside the barometer to rise
the difference in pressure between 2 ends of a tube results in a height difference
between 2 liquid surfaces
gauge pressure: the difference between pressure of your point of interest and an
atmospheric pressure
atmospheric pressure: on average, 101.3kPa
Pascal's Law: an increase in surface pressure results in a pressure increase
throughout the fluid

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Description
Physics 1041 March 3rd Pressure • fluid: matter that flows under influence of external force • comprised of both liquids and gases • fluids are incompressible; density is constant • gases are compressible; density is variable ρ = mass(kg) • density: volume (m ) 3 • density of water: ρ H2O =1000.kg /m ρ = 13600 .kg / m • density of mercury: Hg • pressure: measure normal force per unit area exerted by a fluid force (N) • pressure: P = 2 area(m ) • the unit of N/m is a Pascal (Pa) Example: Pressure changes with depth in a fluid • pressure at water surface is the same as air pressure • pressure increases as depth increases • for a fluid to remain at rest, net force everywhere must be equal to zero • more and more fluid is above you pushing you down the deeper you are; pressure must increase to counteract that effect • this is called hydrostatic equilibrium • hydrostatic equilibrium: P = PO+ ρgh • P=pressure • P Opressure of liquid at surface • ρ=density of liquid • g=acceleration due to gravity • h=height (depth) of fluid • barometer: instrument used to measure pressure • air pressure acts on an open pool/liquid • there is no pressure inside a barometer; when pressure comes from outside, it causes the liquid inside the barometer to rise • the difference in pressure between 2 ends of a tube results in a height difference between 2 liquid surfaces • gauge pressure: the difference between pressure of your point of interest and an atmospheric pressure • atmospheric pressure: on average, 101.3kPa • Pascal's Law: an increase in surface pressure results in a pressure increase throughout the fluid March 5th Pressure • specific gravity: ratio of density of a substance to the density of water ρ Hg 13600 kg / m 3 • example: specific gravity of mercury: = 3 = 13.6
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