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Lecture 5

PHYS1041 Notes Week 5

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Mount Allison University
PHYS 1041
Dr.David Fleming

Physics 1041 March 3rd Pressure • fluid: matter that flows under influence of external force • comprised of both liquids and gases • fluids are incompressible; density is constant • gases are compressible; density is variable ρ = mass(kg) • density: volume (m ) 3 • density of water: ρ H2O /m ρ = 13600 .kg / m • density of mercury: Hg • pressure: measure normal force per unit area exerted by a fluid force (N) • pressure: P = 2 area(m ) • the unit of N/m is a Pascal (Pa) Example: Pressure changes with depth in a fluid • pressure at water surface is the same as air pressure • pressure increases as depth increases • for a fluid to remain at rest, net force everywhere must be equal to zero • more and more fluid is above you pushing you down the deeper you are; pressure must increase to counteract that effect • this is called hydrostatic equilibrium • hydrostatic equilibrium: P = PO+ ρgh • P=pressure • P Opressure of liquid at surface • ρ=density of liquid • g=acceleration due to gravity • h=height (depth) of fluid • barometer: instrument used to measure pressure • air pressure acts on an open pool/liquid • there is no pressure inside a barometer; when pressure comes from outside, it causes the liquid inside the barometer to rise • the difference in pressure between 2 ends of a tube results in a height difference between 2 liquid surfaces • gauge pressure: the difference between pressure of your point of interest and an atmospheric pressure • atmospheric pressure: on average, 101.3kPa • Pascal's Law: an increase in surface pressure results in a pressure increase throughout the fluid March 5th Pressure • specific gravity: ratio of density of a substance to the density of water ρ Hg 13600 kg / m 3 • example: specific gravity of mercury: = 3 = 13.6
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