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POSC 3620 (1)


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Political Science
POSC 3620
Arthur Sullivan

Course: POSC 3620 1 Professor: Francis O'Brien Date: 04/09/2013- 06/09/2013 Author: Dan Kalbhenn Introduction to Understanding Human Rights Chapter One In week one an emphasis is placed on discussion of what is human rights as well as their definitions. The text looks at concepts such as natural law(Divine right of humanity),1st, 2nd, and 3rd generational rights and positive and negative definitions. Natural law is based on morality, logic or divine statement on the rights of all mankind; this is discussed by philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas and Hobbes. 1st generational rights can be compared to natural rights in such a way that they constitute ones liberty, freedoms and right if there was no interference. 2nd generational rights are rights that require a society to implement and are based on the historical social setting of the society; these rights are socialist in nature with examples such as education and healthcare. 3rd generational rights are thought to transcend civil law in their importance to society; environmental law, internet, power. Anegative right is a right not to be subjected to an action of another person or group; negative rights permit or oblige inaction. Apositive right is a right to be subjected to an action or another person or group; positive rights permit or oblige action. The first chapter also mentions the difficulties and real world examples of universal rights such as the Universal Decleration of Human Rights. The UDHR came to be written following WW2 as it became clear to international governments that a single universal document describing mankinds inalienable rights was needed. Given the time in which it was created its major influences would surround the universality of rights, so one group should not enact such degradation of human life again. Other influences to the UDHR are from its authors who were drawn from varying philosophical, ideologies and religious doctrines. It was a belief of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations that mutual agreement on what human rights encompass could be met by spontaneity, however it was the sole exception no one asks why or how each individual should derive its solution of what are basic human rights. Course: POSC 3620 2 Professor: Francis O'Brien Date: 04/09/2013- 06/09/2013 Author: Dan Kalbhenn Main arguments that arose in the creation of the UDHR were conflicts over natural rights, those devised by naturalists such as Hobbes or Aquinas; Laws that are na
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