PSYC 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Gestalt Psychology, Natural Selection, Behaviorism

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28 Jul 2016
Psychology Part 1: Terms
Module 1
Psychology: The study of mental processes and behaviours.
Mental Processes: The activities of our brain when engaged in thinking, observing the
environment, and using language.
Behaviour: Observable activities of an organism, often in response to environment cues.
Culture: A set of shared beliefs and practices that are transmitted across generations.
Module 2
No key terms, but found these important terms throughout reading the textbook
Myths: Stories of forgotten origins that seek to explain or rationalize the fundamental
mysteries of like and are universal, common to all cultures.
Philosophy: A study of knowledge, reality, and the nature and meaning of life.
Module 3:
Natural selection: proposes that chance variations are passed down from parent to offspring,
and that some of these variations are adaptive.
Adaptive: better suited to an organism’s environment. These adaptive variations help the
organism to survive and reproduce in their specific environment. On the other hand, less
adaptive variations will reduce the ability for the organism to survive.
Consciousness: personal awareness of ongoing mental processes, behaviours, and
environmental events.
Voluntarism: a theory in which will is regarded as the ultimate agency in human behaviour;
belief that much of behaviour is motivated and that attention is focused for an explicit purpose.
Structuralism: a philosophical approach that studies the structure of conscious experience. The
goal of structuralism was to describe observable mental processes rather than to explain,
predict or control.
Introspection: a method of psychological study involving careful evaluation of mental processes
and how simple thoughts expand into complex ideas.
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