Chapter 2: Learning Past to Present
CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT APPROACHES
Scientific management: emphasizes careful selection and training of workers and supervisory support
Taylor Frederick advocated:
• Develop rules of motion
• Carefully select workers
• Carefully train workers
1. Develop rules of motion, standardized work implements, and proper working conditions for every job
• Motion Study: is the science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical motions
2. Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job.
3. Carefully train workers and provide proper incentives.
4. Support workers by carefully planning their work and removing obstacles
Frank and Lillian Gilbreths pioneered:
Motion study: Science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical motions
• Eliminating wasted motions improves performance
Henri Fayol: rules of management:
Foresight: to complete a plan of action for the future.
Organization: to provide and mobilize resources to implement the plan.
Command: to lead, select, and evaluate workers to get the best work toward the plan.
Coordination: to fit diverse efforts together and ensure information is shared and problems solved.
Control: to make sure things happen according to plan and to take necessary corrective action
Key principles of management:
Scalar chain: there should be a clear and unbroken line of commun. from the top to the bottom of the org.
Unity of command: each person should receive orders from only one boss.
Unity of direction: one person should be in charge of all activities with the same performance objective
Mary Parker Follett:
Groups and human cooperation:
• Groups are mechanisms through which individuals can combine their talents for a greater good
• Organizations are cooperating “communities” of managers and workers
• Manager’s job is to help people in the org. cooperate and achieve an integration of interests
1 Forward-looking management insights:
•Making every employee an owner creates a sense of collective responsibility (precursor of employee ownership,
profit sharing, and gain-sharing)
•Business problems involve a variety of inter-related factors (precursor of systems thinking)
•Private profits relative to public good (precursor of managerial ethics and social responsibility)
Bureaucracy:An ideal, intentionally rational, and very efficient form of org. Based on principles of logic, order, and le-
Characteristics of bureaucratic organizations: Possible disadvantages of bureaucracy:
Excessive paperwork or “red tape”
• Clear division of labor Slowness in handling problems
Rigidity in the face of shifting needs
• Clear hierarchy of authority Resistance to change
• Formal rules and procedures
• Careers based on merit
BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT APPROACHES
Follett’s Organizations as Communities
• Views org.’s as “communities”
• managers and workers should labour in harmony without one party dominating the other, and with the freedom to talk
over and truly reconcile conflicts and differences
• Making every employee an owner in a business would create feelings of collective responsibility
The Hawthorne Studies
Relay Assembly Test‐Room Studies
• Manipulated physical work conditions to assess impact on output.
• Designed to minimize the “psychological factors” of previous experiment.
2 • Factors that accounted for increased productivity:
Employee Attitudes, Interpersonal Relations, and Group Processes
• Some things satisfied some workers but not others
• People restricted output to adhere to group norms.
Lessons of the Hawthorne Studies
• Social and human concerns are keys to productivity
• Hawthorne effect: people who are singled out for special attention perform as expected.
Maslow’s Theory of Human Needs
Need: physiological or psychological deficiency a person feels compelled to satisfy
Deficit principle:Asatisfied need is not a motivator of behavior.
•Aneed becomes a motivator once the preceding lower-level need is satisfied.
• Both principles cease to operate at self-actualization level
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
McGregor’s Theory X assumes that workers: