GMS200 Lecture Notes - Mary Parker Follett, Henri Fayol, Hawthorne Effect

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Chapter 2: Learning Past to Present
CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT APPROACHES
Scientific Management
Scientific management: emphasizes careful selection and training of workers and supervisory support
Taylor Frederick advocated:
• Develop rules of motion
Carefully select workers
Carefully train workers
Support workers
Guiding Action Principles:
1. Develop rules of motion, standardized work implements, and proper working conditions for every job
Motion Study: is the science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical motions
2. Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job.
3. Carefully train workers and provide proper incentives.
4. Support workers by carefully planning their work and removing obstacles
Frank and Lillian Gilbreths pioneered:
Motion study: Science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical motions
A management tool
• Eliminating wasted motions improves performance
Administrative Principles
Henri Fayol: rules of management:
Foresight: to complete a plan of action for the future.
Organization: to provide and mobilize resources to implement the plan.
Command: to lead, select, and evaluate workers to get the best work toward the plan.
Coordination: to fit diverse efforts together and ensure information is shared and problems solved.
Control: to make sure things happen according to plan and to take necessary corrective action
Key principles of management:
Scalar chain: there should be a clear and unbroken line of commun. from the top to the bottom of the org.
Unity of command: each person should receive orders from only one boss.
Unity of direction: one person should be in charge of all activities with the same performance objective
Mary Parker Follett:
Groups and human cooperation:
• Groups are mechanisms through which individuals can combine their talents for a greater good
• Organizations are cooperating “communities” of managers and workers
• Managers job is to help people in the org. cooperate and achieve an integration of interests
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Forward-looking management insights:
Making every employee an owner creates a sense of collective responsibility (precursor of employee ownership,
profit sharing, and gain-sharing)
Business problems involve a variety of inter-related factors (precursor of systems thinking)
Private profits relative to public good (precursor of managerial ethics and social responsibility)
Bureaucratic Organization
Max Weber
Bureaucracy: An ideal, intentionally rational, and very efficient form of org. Based on principles of logic, order, and le-
gitimate authority
Characteristics of bureaucratic organizations:
Clear division of labor
Clear hierarchy of authority
Formal rules and procedures
Impersonality
Careers based on merit
BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT APPROACHES
Follett’s Organizations as Communities
Views org.’s as “communities”
managers and workers should labour in harmony without one party dominating the other, and with the freedom to talk
over and truly reconcile conflicts and differences
Making every employee an owner in a business would create feelings of collective responsibility
The Hawthorne Studies
Relay Assembly Test Room Studies
Manipulated physical work conditions to assess impact on output.
Designed to minimize the “psychological factors” of previous experiment.
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Possible disadvantages of bureaucracy:
Excessive paperwork or “red tape”
Slowness in handling problems
Rigidity in the face of shifting needs
Resistance to change
Employee apathy
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Document Summary

Scientific management: emphasizes careful selection and training of workers and supervisory support. Taylor frederick advocated: develop rules of motion, carefully select workers, carefully train workers, support workers. Support workers by carefully planning their work and removing obstacles. Motion study: science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical motions: a management tool, eliminating wasted motions improves performance. Foresight: to complete a plan of action for the future. Organization: to provide and mobilize resources to implement the plan. Command: to lead, select, and evaluate workers to get the best work toward the plan. Coordination: to fit diverse efforts together and ensure information is shared and problems solved. Control: to make sure things happen according to plan and to take necessary corrective action. Scalar chain: there should be a clear and unbroken line of commun. from the top to the bottom of the org. Unity of command: each person should receive orders from only one boss.

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