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6 Pages

Course Code
BIOL 205
Ian D Chin- Sang

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Structural comparison of the genome components of eukaryotes Structural comparison of the genome Structural comparison of the genome components of prokaryotes components of viruses Are we prisoners of our DNA? Is DNAour destiny? Nurture Nature Debate A model of determination that emphasizes the role of genes A model of determination that emphasizes the role of the environment ex: queen bee vs worker bee → queen got “royal jelly” A model of determination that emphasizes the interaction of genes and environment What genes? What environment? What time? → Eg. Heat shock on Drosophila wing development: eye development: timing is crucial, can only develop during certain windows of devlopment Q: Do identical twins have the same fingerprints? A: NO! Random events in development lead to variation in phenotype called developmental noise. • have identical genotypes • but at cellular level, almost impossible to create same environment • ex: right thumb and left thumb of same person Not all mutations are equal! • allele: one of many variants of a gene ◦ Variant meaning mutation • simplest mutation is a base pair change: eg, G-C toA-T • others include: single bp insertion, small deletion, large deletions, inversions etc. • need to ask: Where in the gene? How does it alter the gene products? The nature of alleles and their products • phenylketonuria (PKU) ◦ symptoms: discoloured urine, mental retardations • recessive disease is cause by a defective allele of the gene that encodes a liver enzyme called phenylalanine hdroxylase (p) Tyrosine: NOT essential • phenylpyruvic acid interferes with the development of the nervous system (brain) leading to mental retardation • can we come up with a treatment?—there are potentially 4 ◦ remove phenylalanine from diet ◦ gene therapy: gen for phenylalanine hydroxylase ◦ give phenylalanine hydroxylase ◦ drug/enzyme that breaks down phenylpyruvic acid ◦ block pathways that makes phenylpyruvic acid ◦ full liver transplant • babies born with phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) mutations are not prisoners of their DNA • changing their diet. i.e lower phenylalanine intake leads to less phenylpyruvic acid by-product and therefore normal brain development • when you diagnose and treat is important. why? ◦ earlier the better: developmental windows • what can you predict about the colour of their skin? ◦ lighter: tyrosine converted into melanin (pigment) Mutant sites in the PKU gene (phenylalanine hydroxylase ) Gene sites sensitive to mutation a lot of promoter mutations not affected, b
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