PSYC 100 Lecture Notes - Chromosome, Gene Expression, Heredity

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
School
Queen's University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 100
Page:
of 35
Language 09 January 2013
What is language?
Language is more than communication.
What makes something language?
It is symbolic.
It can be used to communicate novel ideas.
It can be used to communicate about something that‟s not happening here
and now.
These three criteria can be referred to as (1) semanticity, (2) generativity,
and (3) displacement.
Language is complicated.
Types of Linguistic Knowledge
Phonology
A phoneme is defined as the shortest segment of speech that, if changed,
changes the meaning of a word.
e.g. sip vs. zip
5000+ living language
English 40+ phonemes (many vowels)
Morphology
help, helping, helps, helped, helpful, helpful, helpless
Syntax (grammar)
Semantics
Pragmatics
knowledge of the world, appropriateness (social aspect)
For idea and decide to speak > choose meaning > apply syntax and
morphology > map words onto motor sequence > move mouth, teeth,
tongue, vocal folds, etc. > acoustic signal
Comprehend utterance >< analyze syntax >< Recognize words and their
associated meanings >< map sound onto phonemes/syllables >< Analyze
acoustic signal >< acoustic signal
[Top down processing]
Left hemisphere is (usually) dominant for language
Symptoms of patients with focal brain lesions (tumors/strokes)
Results of language tests after a reversible lesion is induced in the right or
left hemisphere
perceptual data from
Lesion Studies
Patients with different types of speech production and perception deficits:
Broca‟s aphasia
Wernicke‟s aphasia
Classic anomia
Some areas involved in language:
Wernicke‟s area: adjacent to primary auditory cortex
Broca‟s area: left inferior frontal gyrus
These areas
Broca‟s (non-fluent) aphasia
Patients with difficulty with speech output
effortful, telegraphic
lacking function words, grammatical markers (syntactical errors)
Wernicke‟s (fluent) aphasia:
Patients with fluent speech
lacking content words, semantic errors
comprehension difficulties
Limitations of Lesion Studies
Patients often classified on basis of behaviour not lesion
Lesions vary greatly
can be large
don‟t obey „functional boundaries‟
some areas less prone to damage
how to identify healthy vs. damaged brain
functional compensation/reorganisation
Functional neural-imaging
measure activity in the living brain
healthy volunteers or patients
detect varying activity in different parts of the brain when subjects doing
different tasks
Blood flow as an index of neural activity
Neural Activity:
requires energy in the form of glucose and oxygen
provided by local blood flow
Syntactic processing: The Role of Broca‟s area
Semantic processing: The Role of Broca‟s area
Broca‟s area: Not just syntax but semantics too!
consistent with the idea the Broca‟s region
is not just

Document Summary

It can be used to communicate novel ideas. It can be used to communicate about something that s not happening here and now. These three criteria can be referred to as (1) semanticity, (2) generativity, and (3) displacement. A phoneme is defined as the shortest segment of speech that, if changed, changes the meaning of a word. e. g. sip vs. zip. Morphology help, helping, helps, helped, helpful, helpful, helpless. Pragmatics knowledge of the world, appropriateness (social aspect) For idea and decide to speak > choose meaning > apply syntax and morphology > map words onto motor sequence > move mouth, teeth, tongue, vocal folds, etc. Comprehend utterance >< analyze syntax >< recognize words and their associated meanings >< map sound onto phonemes/syllables >< analyze acoustic signal >< acoustic signal. Symptoms of patients with focal brain lesions (tumors/strokes) Results of language tests after a reversible lesion is induced in the right or left hemisphere perceptual data from.