PSYC 100 Lecture Notes - Bound And Unbound Morphemes, Language Acquisition Device, Phoneme

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Published on 22 Apr 2013
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Delvin So Thursday, January 12,2012
Week 1 : Language
General Things about Language
Symbols of a true language are arbitrary
No reason to call a baby a baby, could call them anything
Exceptions are onomatopoeia
Language is infinitely generative, can say any statement in many ways
Language allows for displacement, can talk about any time period, past, present and future
Components of Language
Phonemes components of sound
Eg. Th, ck,
Talk in a continuous speech stream, without forced enunciation
Morphemes units of meaning, shouldn`t be confused with syllables
Happy one morpheme
Unhappy two morpheme
Unhappiness- three morpheme
Number of morphemes is associated with units of meaning
Free and bound morphemes are root words
Free eg. Happy
Bound eg. Not, un
MLU mean length of utterance
Syntax the rules of a language (unconsciously done, grammar)
Examples are word order, use of nouns,verbs and adjectives along with affixes
Function words are propositions (I,to,the), whereas content words are words such as
nouns that fulfill the rest of the sentence
Semantics study of meaning of word
Textbook says part of syntax but it isn`t
Understanding of semantics helps us understand syntax and vice-versa
Prosody-stress rthym and pitch
Pragmatics the social use of language
Eg. How you talk to police officer vs your friends
How you give information out
Irony
Sarcasm
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Delvin So Thursday, January 12,2012
Early Speech Perception
Babies that are a month old are able to detect all possible phoneme differences
By age of 1, babies can only detect phoemes that are present in their native language
As babies age, they are less and less capable of being able to distinguish phonemes in
foreign languages
Eg. Japanese babies can detect difference between re and le, whereas Japanese
adults who have never been exposed to English cannot distinguish the difference at
all
Babbling
Babies exposed to sign language will `babble`in sign language
Shows that they are trying to communicate, practice their language
Approximations of sign language as opposed to the full sign language
Around 6 months, they will babble a lot and attempt to imitate others
Deaf children will babble audibly at a young age, but will stop due to having no positive
reinforcement as they cannot hear it
Babbling will gradually take on the sounds, rhythm of their native language
Infant-Directed Talk
Motherese
Most cultures use it but it isn’t really necessary
Sweet tone, exaggerated prosody, enunciation and many pauses
Main goal is to get childs attention, and then once attention is received then mother
will start to talk normally
Early Words
Most early words are directed to objects and people that are related and connected to
the baby
Usually names for people and things
Only say what they need to get their point across
Under and over extension occurs early on
Instead of saying my cup, they just say cup
Grammar Development
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