PSYC 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Mendelian Inheritance, Y Chromosome, Prenatal Care

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Published on 22 Apr 2013
Queen's University
PSYC 100
Thursday, January 19th
Week 2 : Genetics and Intelligence
Nature vs. Nurture
Nature is only genes that we receive from our parents, essentially hereditary
Nurture is everything else, physical ad social environment
How do the above two interact to affect development of a child
Can`t study people without taking into their account their behaviour
Genotypes and Phenotypes
Genotypes complete set of genes that are inherited, whereas Phenotypes how those
traits are physically expressed in appearance and behaviour
Phenotypes affected by environment even before conception
Genes can be turned on and off
If genotypes were expressed the same in all cells, then all cells would be exactly the same
Has to be someway cells turn into brain cells, nerve cells, skin cells, etc
Genes turned on and off just to make different cells just to adapt to the environment that
one is on
Phenotypes affected by the environment even before conception
Eg. If rats don’t get their grooming in their early stages of life, they will become stressed for
the remainder of their lives, even if they do not have a high stress phenotype and their
stress phenotype becomes overly expressed than usual
Our parents upbringing and phenotype expression can affect ours in the end
Nucleus of every cell contains 23 pair of chromosomes, mitochondria and chloroplasts also
have chromosomal dna
Genes are sections of the chromosomes, and each gene is a segment of DNA which codes
for the production a particular protein
22 of these pairs are about the same and carry same gene sequences relevant to same traits
Except to sex chromosomes, whereas females have XX and males XY
Father determines the sex of the baby
Y chromosome activates other chromosomes to product testosterone and thus the
As the X is so much bigger than Y, there are lots of stuff missing from Y, which explains
why males suffer from genetic mutations more than females
Genetic Mutations and Expression
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