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Graphic Communications
GCM 230
Diana Brown

 education literacy: thankstotheinventionofmassprinting  technical termsfor uppercase(majescule)&lowercase(miniscule) 3500B.C -1000B.C  alphabet: -set of symbols& numbers representingscopeand sound -wasonly in capitals -invented by merchants (wayfor themtocommunicate)  alpha Αα) & beta (Ββ ) arethe1sttwolettersintheGreek language 180B.C  manuscript: -manuscript development becameasought-after craft -monksspent a lifetime writingmanuscripts  books(e.gbibles) were onlyfor privileged fewsince therewerenoresourcesfor othersto read 1400s(15th Century)  Gutenberg: -did not invent printing -brought togetherthe ideasoftheprintingpressand moveabletype to give birth to massproduction -hisfirst printed book wasthe42-lineBible  there wasa significant decreaseinbook costs  clay type wasused (notmetal) 1500s(16th Century)  35 million books were printed  Time Life magazine wasnamed printingpresstechnologyofthemillennium 1800s(19th Century in Canada)  Mackenzie house had a letterpressprintingshop  working printing press  printed "The Globe" newspaper  max. 6pt type min.4pt type  4 pagesof news  haunted house  lines that were typed had tobeupsidedown andbackwards  sayings: "Can't get a word in edgewise."(printing) "Out of sorts." (in a bad mood)  terms: cliché-a printing case stereotype:lines of typekept together sort:an individual letterform type Monotype TypesettingMachine  machine did the work of 8men  assembled type (automated process)  it took 7 yearsto become atypesettingmachineoperator Beatrice Ward(woman ina man'sworlda.k.aPaulBeaujon)  " Friend you stand on sacred groundsthisisaprinting office."  After publishing her discoveryofGaramond'sorigin usingher pen namePaul Beaujon,in 1927,she wasoffered thepart time post ofeditor oftheMonotype Recorder,to the astonishment of LanstonMonotypeCorporateexecutivesin London,who were expectingaman  promoted to publicity manager inabout 1929 font brands,font management technology Font File: computer files that holdalgorithms(setsofcomputer instructionswhich are processed for printing) Rasterization:  conversion of vector informationintodotsorpixelstoactually display the font  requires a high resolution (1200dpi) Font categories: Bitmapped fonts  set of dot patternsfor eachletter inatypeface  takes up disk space for eachpoint size  highly dependant onresolution withverypoordisplay Outline fonts  containsthe vector outlinestoreproduce thefont atanyscale  width tablesthat tell thecomputer howwide thelettersshould beasaresult of their point size  kerningtableswhich list howletter pairsshould combine Font formats: 1. Post Script (PS) Type I  introduced by Adobe 1985 as the first WYSIWYG(what you see is what you get) font for desktop computer systems  Adobe PS Type I fontshave:screen font &printer font  most reliable at the timeprintersused PostScript languagetooutput 2. TrueType  introduced by Microsoft & Apple in 1990 so that they could run their OS systems without Adobe  TrueType fonts consist of one font fileand arasterizer  because almost all RIPs use the PostScript language, TrueType fonts had output problems 3. OpenType  introduced byAdobe &Microsoft asthenewreplacement for PSfonts  cross-platform compatible(Mac&PC)  single font file containing all the info about that font (therefore simplified font management)  smaller file sizes & ability tohold thousandsofglyphs Font management  a large number of fonts can slowdownan OS  several levels of font are system fonts, user fonts (for extra fonts) and application fonts  you can use software to help you manage your fonts (Extensis Suitcase, Linotype FontExplorer,Font Book)  Font Book is free on a Mac (you can install, preview and organize your fonts here) web fonts,issues with fonts,font replacement,fontembedding,copyrightissues Web Font Formats  .eot -Embedded Open Type  .ttf -True Type Format  .oft -Open Type Format  .svg- Scalable Vector Graphic  .woff -Web Open Font Format HowtoChoose a Web Font  legibility  readability  retention  repertoire Trendsin Web Typography 1. Variety of typefaces 2. Text shadoweffects 3. Type contrast 4. Larger type 5. Fontsfor icons Font Issues 1. Font replacements 2. Legal issues layout concepts suchas enlargedcapitals,markingparagraphs,captionsandhierarchy Text: -an ongoing sequence of words,distinct fromshorter headlinesor captions -body/running textflows acrosspages,columnsand text boxes -typography helpsnavigate thisflowand helpsreadersavoid"reading" Readability -the speed or ease with which longpassages oftext canberead continuously -we read byrecognizing word formsnotindividualletters -serifsare typically usedfor long texttohelpguide theeye Legibility -the measure of thedegree to whichtypeset charactersand wordscan bedeciphered by the eye -hasto do with the appearance of theletter andword forms -you don't alwayshave to have readability,but legibility isamust! Spacing -design is50%marking and 50%spacing -typography makes textinto an "object"withdimensionsand locations -the alphabet representssoundsbut can't function without thesilent marks -it isimportant to helpusreadthissentencelol ~history~ -the majority of space came from: +leading:piecesthat increase linespacingin letterpress +furniture: larger piece that add space allaroundthe text -"white space" ischallenged online,withdesignerspopulatingeachscreen withas much data aspossible -it isthe designer'sjob to help readersnavigate thisspace -typography most of the time ispassiveand other timesitassertsmeaning Hierarchy -usestext differencesto signify theimportance ofelementson thepage(orlack thereof) -spatial cues:indent, line,space,placement -graphic cues:size,style, color,position -while you can indicate paragraphchangesusing multiplycuesinline,youshould stick to one -the key to maintaininghierarchyisconsistency VerticalText -upper case lettersstackbetter thanlower caselettersbecausetheyaremore stable and even -we centerthe alignment when usingverticaltype onapathtohelpeven outthe differencesin width Enlarged Capitals(a.k.a versals) -mark the entrance point in a chapter ofabook -can becreated in-line with the text or dropped belowseverallines(dropped captal, dropcap) -can bedoneby using the paragraphpalette>dropcapnumber oflinesicon orarrow key icon "A" -you can also use text wrap to make itdosomethingsimilar but itwillnotbesystematic Marking Paragraphs -paragraphshelpus synthesize a bodyoftext moremanageably -different conventionscan be usedtoindicatethe start ofanewparagraph (eg.Em space,tab,Space before or after aparagraph; alsoit doesn't allneed tobe combined) -different periodsin time have had variousparagraphconventions Captions -many people start reading by lookingatan imagefirst,then thecaption thanthetext (image > caption >text) -having captionsand imagestogether isconvenient but sometimesthelayout doesnot promote this -if the caption needstobe there tounderstand thephoto,then theyshould beclose together -text needsto thought out so the reader isnotjumpingpagestosee content -are very important in online catalogs -are achieved with color, frames,rulesetc -helpsus organize dynamic content Linearity -a book isa fixed sequence of pageswithabodyand known coordinates -navigational toolsinclude table ofcontents,index,appendix,etc -these devices are the "entrance" and "escape" -many digital media arealso linear (eg.Microsoft Word vs.inDesign) -typography hasevolved from a stablebodyofobjectstoaflexiblesystemofattributes anatomy oftype,technical typographicterminology Anatomy Terms: Baseline:the line on which the mainbodyofletter rests Ascender and ascender line: the verticalstrokethatextendsabovethemainbodyof letterssuch asb,h and f Descender and descender line: the verticalstrokeor tailthathangsbelowthebaseline of letters such as g, j, and p x-height: the size of the main bodyofatypeface'slowercaseletters size: two types of measuring units- absolute units  fixed and unchanging  page dimensions-inches  line lengths-picas& points  type size and line spacing-points relative units  based on the size of the typecurrentlyusing(ifthetypeincreases/decreases, unitswillincrease/decreaseproportionately)  Em space-M (widest letter) -12pt x 12pt  En space-n (half of em) -6ptx 12pt  Thin space-i (quarter ofem) -3pt x 12pt Width -the horizontal measure -set width isthe body of the letter plusasliver ofspa
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