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Lecture

ITM 102 Lecture Notes - Harpercollins, Roman Blood, Composite Bow


Department
Information Technology Management
Course Code
ITM 102
Professor
David Schlanger

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He who dreams of power with a great passion will let absolutely
nothing get in the way of obtaining it. Similarly, by looking back in
history at the Egyptians during the New Kingdom, Rome during
Trajan’s empire and the Mongol empire; 3 great civilisations who all
shared one common dream of ruling the world. The reason to how
these 3 once great civilizations were able to prosper in their own time
was due to their military, wealthy land and ambitious rulers.
Throughout the history of human kind, the world has encountered
various civilisations that rose to power and created absolute
dominance in their own time due to their strong army, wealth of the
land (or knowledge of the land in the case of nomads) and the
ambitious rulers who took power; this dominance is portrayed through
the Egyptians of the New Kingdom, Rome during Trajan’s empire and
the Mongol empire.
The Ancient Egyptians army contained thousands of highly
trained men and used various strategies to achieve their military goals
which resulted in making Egypt a dominant power in the time of the
new kingdom. Every single soldier had a specific duty, in other words
their army was extremely well organized. The Egyptians organized
their mass army through divisions. Each division included several
thousand men. Each division had 4000 infantry and 1000 charioteers.1
A division was organized into 10 battalions of 500 soldiers each. A
battalion was sub divided into groups; companies of 250 men, platoons
1 Eugen Strouhal, Life of the Ancient Egyptians (Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma, 1992), 132.

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of 50 men and 10 men squads. The Egyptians also organized the
chariotry in a very sophisticated way. The chariotry was divided into
brigades; each brigade had 2 or more squadrons. A squadron included
5 companies of 10 chariots which added up to 50 chariots in total. The
Egyptians used sappers, which were soldiers whose main job was to
construct trenches and tunnels. They also used shield bearers which
were soldiers whose job was to protect a soldier. So for example a king
would have 2 or 3 shield bearers. Due to the effectiveness and critical
organization of the Egyptian army, Egypt during the New Kingdom
defeated many enemies such as the defeat of the Hyksos under King
Ahmose in 1550 B.C. and the defeat of the Hittites at the battle of
Kadesh in 1299 B.C. under King Ramesses II.2 The Egyptian’s army
clearly played an important role in their successful rise of power and
were able to make Egypt a dominant power which nobody at the time
could over power and this can be seen through the victories of many
great battles such as the defeat of the Hyksos in 1550 B.C and the
defeat of the Hittites in 1299 B.C. Something else that massively
contributed to the superiority of the Egyptians was the wealth of the
land which can be seen through Egypt’s agriculture. The Egyptians
were blessed in a land which was rich in natural resources such as
agriculture which ultimately contributed to their dominance in the near
East. For a civilization to become a dominant power, there are several
other factors involved apart from simply the aspect of having an
2 Ibid,. 112.

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effective military. Egypt had extremely fertile land which allowed the
Egyptians to be able to produce more than enough food for everyone
ultimately contributing to their dominance. First of all, the soldiers
must have been well fed while they went on their campaigns. A very
large supply of food was needed when the Egyptian went on their long
expeditions conquering land. For example, during the battle of
Megiddo in 609 B.C, every day the Egyptian army consumed 14 tons of
grain and 25 thousand gallons of water.3 Not many civilisations at the
time such as the Hyksos and Hittites were able to afford such
expensive food costs at the time so clearly Egypt’s fertile soil allowed
them to gain the advantage and they took advantage of it. Due to the
wealth of the land, Egypt was able to produce enough food for their
army to go on expeditions for several months conquering land without
ever having to worry about running out of food; something that most
other armies at the time could not do which ultimately contributes to
their dominance. Lastly, one of the most important reasons the
Egyptians were able to create dominance was due to the ambitious
pharaohs who lead their country to success. The Pharaohs who took
power majorly influenced the success of Egypt by their role of
leadership, decision making and most importantly ambition; this
ambition is portrayed throughout the reign of Ramesses the great who
ruled from 1279 to 1213 B.C. There have been many great pharaohs in
3 Michael Woods, Ancient Agriculture from Foraging to Farming (London: Twenty First Century Books,
2000), 19.
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