Week 1 SWL
• Human development is the study of biological, psychological and sociocultural
factors that influence development across the lifespan.
• Human development includes infancy, early, middle and late childhood,
adolescence, early, middle, late adultgood as well as death and dying.
Development occurs across the lifespan.
One possible answer:
• If we understand normal or typical development that we can recognize
abnormal development and cause for concern
• This is true at every stage of development
• Our early development has a strong influence on development throughout the
A typical Development
• A deviation from normal or typical development
• These include exceptonalities, developmental delay, psychological
disorders, behavioural problems like extreme aggression
• Off time vs on time events means that certain events wull occur for
most people in your cohort at a certain time. When something atypical
occurs during an offtime, this is usually experienced more severely.
Conditions that influence human development
• Economic, political, cultural,religious,historical
• Gender, ethnicity, class, intellectual, physical abilities, sexual
orientation, religion influence, who and what we become
Early theories of development
• Different views of children historically
• The concept of a tabula rasa or a blank slate was popular in the 17 century. This
is the notion that children are born without innate tendancies and it is up to
parents to mould children.
• Opposite theory popular in the 60s and still believed today, we are naturally good
and seek expiriences to help us grow.
• Rousseau believed that children only needed nurturing and protection to reach
their potential; good development occurs from an environment that does not
interfere with the growth process
• Simonbinet studied intelligence to identify children who required extra assistance
3. Information processing theory Psychodynamic development
2. Systems theory
• Continuous perspective views development as a process where the effects of
learning mount gradually with no major qualitive changes
• Discontinuous perspective views development as a number of rapid qualitive
changes ushering in new stages of development.
• Freud and Piaget were discontinuous theorist
Structural theory and psychosexual stages
• Behavior is controlled by conscious and unconscious forces, the most basic of all
unconscious processes Is the internal drive for physical pleasure called libido.
Libido motivates all behavior.
• The id is unconscious, basic sexual and aggressive impulses and present at birth;
ego develops around 2 years and satisfies the needs of the id. It also has the job of
balancing the demands of the superego. The superego is our moral compass and it
maintains the rules of society. It develops when one has resolved the phallic stage
of development around age 56. The ego must keep all 3 processes in balance and
does this by developing defense mechanisims or ways to reduce anxiety.
• Freud developed a psycosexual stage development theory. the libido is focused on
a different part of the body, oral, anal, genitals. Too much or too little
opportunities for stimulation leads to fixation which means that the unresolved
problem due to unmet needs will play a role in personality later in life.
o Personality has 3 aspects:
The id: unorganized, unconscious, primitive drive part of the
personality present at birth ex. Hunger, sex, aggression, irrational
impulses and operates according to the pleasure principal. Goal:
maximize satisfaction/reduce tension.
The ego: sense of self. It is the rational conscious and reasonable
part of the personality, mediating between the id’s desires and
superegos moral principles. Operates according to the “reality
principle” The superego: a persons conscience able to distinguish social
values of right and wrong from parenting, teachers and society etc.
• Oral stage (birth1218 months): the mouth is the primary source of pleasure.
Conflict at this stage centers on weaning. Too much or too little gratification leads
to oral fixation (preoccupation with oral activities such as eating, nail biting,
smoking); difficulties in this stage leads to personality traits like dependence,
gullibility or the other extreme aggression and sarcasm.
• Anal stage (12mo3yrs): children derive pleasure from expelling or withholding
feces. Conflict begins when toilet training occurs because this is the first attempt a
parents has at teaching the child to postpone gratification; too lenient leads to
rebellion and later an anal explusive personality rebellious, hostile, sloppy,
distructive. Children may defy parents by withlding feces. Leads to being neat and
• Phallic Stage (35 years): children learn that they get pleasure from touching their
genitals. Conflict develops during this stage as sexual desire for parent of opposite
sex and hostility towards same sex parent occurs. Freud called this Oedipus
complex for boys.
• Latency period (5/6 until puberty): children play with children of the same gen