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Lecture

Biology .pdf

4 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BISC 101
Professor
Christopher Kennedy

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Membranes • Plasma membrane surrounds the cell • Endo-membranes ◦ Surround organelles (nucleus, chloroplast, Goligi body) [Fig 6.9] • Thickness-8000 membranes, 1 page thickness • Membranes have lipids and proteins and carbohydrates ◦ Are flexible -> fluid mosaic model • Lipids - are phospholipids ◦ Bilayer present ‣ Hydrophilic ‣ Hydrophobic ‣ Amphipathic [Fig 5.13] - [Fig 8.12] structure of a phospholipid • Hydrophilic region • Hydrophobic region • Membranes are selectively permeable ◦ [Fig 7.5] structure of animal cells plasma membrane • Proteins embedded in membrane ‣ Many functions [Fig 7.10] functions of membrane proteins • Integral protein... Sits inside • Peripheral protein... Outside • Carbohydrates = oligosaccharides (short chain, 8-15 sugars) ◦ Involved in signaling ◦ Cell-to-cell recognition of foreign cells ◦ Blood groups (A, B, AB, O) ‣ Differ in carbohydrate types on blood cells Movement into/out of cell • Gases- can diffuse through membrane • Water - channels called aquaporins ◦ 3 billion water molecules per second • Ions, sugar, amino acids must be transported across transport proteins • Transport ◦ passive (no energy) neede d ◦ Active (energy needed as ATP) Passive transport • Diffusion - molecules spread into a space, down a concentration gradient (high -> low) ◦ [Fig 7.13] diffusion of molecules • Osmosis - movement of water, from low solute to high solute ◦ Maintains cell turgidity, and cell
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