BISC 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Leaf Miner, Riboflavin, Body Fluid

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BISC 101 – Lecture 13 – Animal Nutrition
The Need to Feed
Food is taken in, taken apart, and taken up in the process of animal nutrition
Animals fall into three categories:
1. Herbivores: Eat mainly autotrophs
oEx: Rabbits, cows, elephants, deer
2. Carnivores: Eat other animals
oEx: Sharks, hawks, spiders, snakes
3. Omnivores: Regularly consume animals as well as plants or algal matter
oEx: Humans, bears, raccoons, cockroaches
Diet
An animals diet provides chemical energy
Chemical energy is converted into ATP and powers processes in the body
Animals diet supply organic carbon and organic nitrogen in order to construct
organic molecules
Essential nutrients are required by cells and must be obtained from dietary
sources
Four classes of essential nutrients include:
1. Amino acids
2. Fatty Acids
3. Vitamins
4. Minerals
Essential Amino Acids
Animals require 20 amino acids to make proteins
In adult humans, 8 of the 20 amino acids are essential amino acids
The 8 essential amino acids must be obtained from food in preassembled form
Meat, eggs, and cheese provide all the essential amino acids and are complete
proteins
Most plant proteins are incomplete in amino acid makeup
oIndividuals who eat only plant proteins need to eat specific plant
combinations to get all essential amino acids
In infants or growing children, the list of essential amino acids grows to 12
oAddition of cysteine, tyrosine, histidine, and arginine
Essential Fatty Acids
Animals can synthesize most of the fatty acids they need
Essential Fatty Acids: Certain unsaturated fatty acids that must be obtained from
the diet
oHumans require linoleic acid to make cell membrane phospholipids
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Deficiencies in fatty acids are rare since human diet incorporates seeds, grains
and vegetables which contain ample amount of these acids
Vitamins
Vitamins: Organic molecules required in the diet in small amounts
Many vitamins function as coenzymes
oEx: Vitamin B2 is converted in the body to FAD
oFAD: Coenzyme used in metabolic processes like cellular respiration
13 vitamins essential to humans have been identified
Vitamins are grouped into two categories
1. Fat – Soluble
2. Water – Soluble
Minerals
Minerals: Simple inorganic nutrients, such as iron and sulfur, that are usually
required in small amounts
Minerals serve a variety of important functions in the body:
1. Magnesium: Co – factor in enzymes that split ATP
2. Sodium, potassium and chlorine: Important in functioning of nerves and in
maintaining osmotic balance between cells and surrounding body fluid
3. Iodine: Used by vertebrates to make thyroid hormones which regulate
metabolic rate
4. Calcium and phosphorus: Used by vertebrates to build and maintain bone
tissue
Stages of Food Processing
Main stages of food processing are: Ingestion, Digestion, Absorption, Elimination
Ingestion: The act of eating
oSuspension Feeders: Animals that sift small food particles from the water
Clams and oysters feed on tiny morsel of food in the water that
passes over their gills; cilia sweep the food particles to the animals
mouth in a film of mucus
Baleen whales actively searches out an area that is rich in plankton;
swimming with its mouth wide open to filter its food
oSubstrate Feeders: Animals that live in or on their food source, eating their
way through it
The leaf miner caterpillar can eat through soft tissue of an oak leaf
Maggots burrow into animal carcasses
Termites destroy wooden structures by burrowing through wood and
feeding on cellulose
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