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Lecture 4

PSYC 241 Lecture 4: PSYC 241 – WEEK 4 (Lecture)

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PSYC 241
Shannon Zaitsoff

1 PSYC 241 WEEK 4 (Lecture) ANXIETY DISORDERS Important to note that having anxiety isnt a bad thing, too much is bad AND too little is bad ETIOLOGY: ANXIETY DISORDERS Biological Factors Genetic Influence: o If you have a family member with an anxiety disorder you are 46 times more likely to develop an anxiety disorder in comparison to individuals without a family history It could be any anxiety disorder despite whichever one your family member has o Nonspecific risk factor Neuroanatomy: Neural Fear Circuit o 1. Thalamus o 2. Amygdala o 3. Hypothalamus o 4. Midbrain o 5. Brain stem o 6. Spinal Cord Neurotransmitters GABA: most pervasive inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain o Benzodiazepines Serotonin and norepinephrine systems also involved o Norepinephrine really associated with the fight or flight response o Its not if you have to much or little of a neurotransmitter, its a balancing act Psychological Factors Behavioral Factors: Twofactor theory (Mowrer) o 1. Fears are acquired through classical conditioning Pairing little Albert First the fears are learned through CC, then maintained by operant conditioning o 2. Fears are maintained through operant conditioning Escaping is a negative reinforcer (the removal of something unpleasant) that prevents classically conditioned fears from being unlearned Avoidant behaviours reinforce the fear because they take away the anxiety reinforcing your phobia Limitations: Can not explain the development of all phobias. o Vicarious learning o Biological preparedness for developing fear of some types of stimuli
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