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anthro week 11 lecture.docx

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ANTH 1010H
Jocelyn Williams

Anthro Lecture - Week 11 Outline - Race and its biological variability - Human variation o Type II diabetes - Cultural heritage o Archaeologists as stewards o Who owns the past o Who decides how the past is displayed/discussed Renaissance and the Genesis of the Race Concept - Renaissance is characterised by the development of large ocean going ships - Prior to this, people travelled overland great distances and could observe gradual changes in appearance o Latitudinal changes in skin colour were noted prior to Renaissance, but not attributed to ‘races’ but rather geography Colonization and the Race Concept - Travel from Europe to distant locations - Newly encountered populations were previously unknown - Seemed categorically different o Culture o Appearance o Religion Physical and Cultural Differences - Colonizers had no sense of diversity that existed within colonized populations - People were grouped together based on physical similarity o Regardless of differences in culture, religion, political organization o These categories became pervasive and led to the construction of racial categories  These racial categories were then linked to so-called fundamental, innate biological differences in:  Mental capacity  Physical fitness  Morality  Early 19 century scientists focused on proving the validity of these biological differences  Measuring differences in cranial capacity, for example Race: The Power of Illusion - Post WWII (1945) questions about the biological validity of this concept - Concept of race had no biological validity Human Variation - Tremendous differences in human form - Many differences you don’t see on the surface o Susceptibility to heart disease o Cancer o Asthma o Diabetes - All of these differences are underlain by the action of multiple genes working together with environment - Genetic drift o Founders effect o Genetic bottleneck o Type II diabetes  Most common in  First nations  India  Australian aborigines  Pacific and Indian ocean populations  Why? o Thrifty genotype  In populations that experienced starvation/food storages we see positive selection for alleles that promote the storage of fat and energy  This genotype may also have accu
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