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Psychology Week Four - motivation lecture notes.docx

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PSYC 1030H
Brenda Smith- Chant

Psychology Week Four: Motivation Motivation - An inferred process - Distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is not always clear; can be a combination of the two - Instincts o Pre-programmed tendencies essential for survival  Basis of early theories of motivation (ex. Freud) o What instincts (drives)?  Heavy emphasis on biological  Hunger  Sex  Others added  By 1930’s, over 10,000 proposed - Drives and incentives o Clark Hull (1943, 1952)  Variation on Freud  Drives: internal states – physiological needs  Seek homeostasis  Dis-equilibrium = tension  Discomfort  Satisfy need, reduce tension o Proposed incentives also motivate  External stimuli or rewards  Don’t directly satisfy a physiological need  Something that we choose to engage in  Eating when you aren’t really hungry, watching scary movies, etc. o Zimbardo and Montgomery (1957)  Denied rats food and water  Place in new environment – lots of opportunity to satisfy hunger/thirst  Rats instead explored – didn’t eat or drink until their curiosity was satisfied  Doesn’t follow Maslow’s hierarchy - Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs o Move beyond instincts o Needs at each level must be satisfied before next higher level can be achieved  Arranged from biological up to ‘self-actualization’ o Issues  Very little empirical support  Doesn’t account for behaviour, much of what we see  Oversimplified - Motivation applied to behaviour o Eating – accomplished via 4 tasks 1. Detect internal food need  Early research focused on physical cues  Biological tension – stomach muscles contract, gastric activity  Cannon (and Washburn) stomach contractions o Experiment with balloon at the end of a tube, swallowed, filled with water, stomach contracts, water displaced & measured o Determined hunger related to contracting stomach  Peripheral responses – stomach contractions not necessary for hunger, people without stomachs still feel hungry  Sensory-specific satiety will stop hunger o Can eat less of a single food than if offered a variety  Central responses o Brain is involved in perceptions of hunger
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