Emergence of Agriculture.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Agricultural Studies
AGST 1000
Henning Bjourlund

Emergence of Agriculture September 12 The spread of humans - Earliest stages of human evolution took place in Africa. Distinct evolution of humans around 7 million years ago. - Substantially upright 4 million years ago - Increase in body size 2.5 million years ago - Homo erectus 1.7 million years ago - Homo Sapiens 500,000 years ago - Where did settled agriculture emerge? Why did settled agriculture emerge? - A number of factors interacted: Population pressure on resources: Animals and territory for hunting becoming scarce - A reduced return for labor - Climate volatility (becoming warmer and dryer) changed the environment, large animals went up the mountains and crops did as well. - Growing crops and domestic herds of sheep and goat increased food security. - Increased productivity of the land, of the young and the old in the community. What is “The Neolithic Revolution” - The adoption of early farming techniques, crop cultivation, and the domestication of animals. - An increased tendency to live in permantent or semi-permanent settlements. - New deveolpemts in social organization(hierarchy and priests) and in technology (tools, storage) - The development of land ownership, rather than agreement on usufruct rights to hunting territory - An increased reliance on vegetable and cereal food in the total diet. - “Trading economies” that use surplus production from increasing crop yields. “Founder Crops” Spread of food production - Ecnomonies where “founder crops” were adapted, prospered and trade followed - Demand for agricultural tools encouraged trade and exchange of idea’s - Improved seeds and animal stock moved ot their parts and supplemental local crops - In aread of food origin- food production becam enriched by the addition of crops, .ivestock and techniques from other areas. - Where rainfall was insufficient irrigation occurred. - Many different varieties of each crop existed simultaneously - Each farmer stored and use his own seeds for next year’s crop - Many local grasses, legumes and pulses were cultivated as well. East-West Spread - East-west spread was encouraged because same latitude (day length and season variation) - Share same deceases, regime of rainfall and temperature and vegetation. - These factors determine what plants and animals can be produced - Same growth condition and plant evolution - Promoted spread across Eurasia which are wide and narrow in east west direction North-South Spread - North-south spread more difficult - Temperature decreases - Rainfall caries - Growing hours change - Seasonality changes - This restricts the spread of food production - Restricted spread on the American continent which is long and narrow in N-S direction - Also mountains and other physical barriers Transportation
More Less

Related notes for AGST 1000

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.