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Lecture

Chap 3 - Water.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1010
Professor
Brent Sellinger
Semester
Fall

Description
Reece et al 9 Edition Chapter 3 1 Page Water and the Fitness of the Environment Water is essential for all living things. It is one of the most abundance substances on earth. Why is water so important for life on earth? Water has a number of emergent properties that make it universally important to life. Chemical structure of Water (Figure 3.2) 1* Polar covalent bonds between oxygen and hydrogen result in up to 4 hydrogen bonds between neighboring water molecules. 2* The hydrogen bonds of water are about 0.05 times as strong as its covalent bonds I. Water Emergent Properties that Contribute to the Habitability of Earth 1. Cohesion of water molecules Cohesion - the binding together of like molecules - The continuous forming and breaking of hydrogen bonds between water molecules make water a very structured liquid despite the fact that these bonds last only several trillionths of a second. Surface tension - a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a Liquid (e.g., water striders walking on water) Adhesion - clinging of one substance to another e.g., water adheres to cell walls of xylem cells in trees Strong Chemical bonds - Covalent: non polar (ex: dihydrogen gas, equal sharing) and polar(ex: water, unequal) - Comparing electronegativity: F>O>N>(C=S)>(P=H) - Ionic: ex: NaCl, chlorine takes electron from sodium, completes outer shell for both but now a difference of charge. There relationship is due to charged interactions Weak bonds - Hydrogen bond: - Ionic aqueous solution 2. Moderation of temperature Water absorbs heat from air that is warmer and releases it to air that is cooler. Water can absorb or release a relatively large amount of heat with only a slight change in its temperature Kinetic energy - energy of motion 2 Heat - measure of the total kinetic energy of a material due to molecular motion • 1 calorie (cal) = heat units = heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1▯C = 4.184 joule (j) Temperature - measure of heat intensity that represents the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a system Specific heat - amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of the substance to change its temperature by 1▯C Water has a high specific heat = 1 cal/g/ ▯C •Because of the high specific heat of water relative to other substances, water temperature will change less when it absorbs a given amount of heat. •Water’s high specific heat can be attributed to its hydrogen bonding capacity. •Heat must be absorbed to break hydrogen bonds. Heat is absorbed to break the hydrogen bonds before the water molecules can move faster •Heat must be given off to make hydrogen bonds. When water cools slightly, many additional hydrogen bonds form thereby releasing heat. •This property results in large bodies of water warming up by a few degrees in the day and absorbing and storing large amounts of heat that is released at night. •Results in moderating coastal and ocean, and organism temperatures (Recall: most living things are 70 to 95 % water). Evaporative cooling Vaporization - phase change from liquid to gas. Condensation - phase change from gas to liquid Heat of vaporization = amount of heat required for 1 g of a substance to go from liquid state to gaseous state. •Water has a high heat of vaporization (at 25▯C = 580 cal/g) - because of the hydrogen bonds that must be broken before molecules can leave the liquid state •The most energetic molecules leave resulting in a decline in temperature (Remember: heat is total kinetic energy; temperature is average kinetic energy of a substance) • When the energetic molecules leave, the surface of the liquid cools down Examples Reece et al 9 Edition Chapter 3 3 Page 3. Ice floats As a chemical changes from solid ▯ liquid ▯ gas the density decreases This is not so for water. • Water freezes at 0˚C yet it’s density is greatest at 4˚C. •As substances cool they contract. As molecules lose energy they move closer together (The opposite occurs as they get warmer ▯ they expand). Contraction of molecules allows hydrogen bonds to form. •As water freezes the molecules are not moving vigorously enough to break the hydrogen bonds and molecules become locked in a crystal lattice with the formation of four hydrogen bonds. • This results in ice being 10% less
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