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Biology 3300- Polyploidy

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BIOL 3300
Theresa Burg

Biology 33th Jan.15 Nitrogenous bases: - Purines (A & G) - Pyrimidines (C & T) Transitions  change from purine to purine or pyrimidine to pyrimidine Transversion  change from purine to pyrimidine or pyrimidine to purine **Transitions are more common due to similar size nucleotides Point mutation  change in single nucleotide - May create new alleles - Potential causes during DNA synthesis or DNA repair - If mutation in coding region: o Replacement/non-synonymous  Change in amino acid (substitution) o Silent/synonymous  No change in amino acid Missense mutation has a new amino acid; may have no function Nonsense mutation  premature termination Synonymous are more likely to occur and accumulate - Produces same protein (no chance in amino acid) Non-synonymous will increase over time st nd Change 1 codon and 2 codon position more likely to change amino acid and be non- synonymous (blue line in graph) Jumping genes - Enter at random spots and disrupt product - Color kernels found when you cross CCxC’C’ even though all should be colorless; this is due to jumping genes
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