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MGT 4220 (1)

Chapters 1 to 7

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MGT 4220
Roberto Bello

Chapter 1 - Culture (link, common, useful, operational) • A solution given to handle universal problems. (same problems, different solutions) • “Culture is useful to the individual but it does not define the individual; rather, the society at large” o The individual can choose from the plethora of behaviours given, but o Easy for people to identify with and understand (broadly) • Elements of Culture: o Language (~6000 languages) - Implicit & Explicit o Institutions - How we organize people (like occupation or hierarchy) o Material - outcome of culture (like buildings, intellect, art, etc.) o Symbolic and Sacred - the model beliefs • Environment, Education, Cognitive skills o The climate they live in, the education they get, and their predisposed cognitive skills affect performance of a culture. o Geography affects the way you see the world (many of the prominent religion happened, geographically, in countries along the equator. Chapter 2 - Time & Space • “Culture is learned and forgotten” → Keep that in mind when dealing with others • Three reasons you have the culture that you have: o Cognitive → because you think it works o Affective → because other people like it that way o Directive → because you have seen people do it the same way • Cultural behaviour happens within yourself, between others, and from you to the world • First, within (yourself against yourself) o Human problems  Human-nature orientation (in the West we use law, for the most part)  Nature orientation (live with nature or master nature)  Time orientation (past (tradition), present (yolo), or future)  Activity orientation (being (emotion; self-center), doing (action based), or becoming)  Relational orientation (how do we relate with others, linear (help others) or individual (help yourself) or collateral (convenient to you))  Space orientation (open, private, or mixed) • Time o Economicity of Time → Is time money? o Use of Time → Opportunity cost. Multi tasking vs One at a time methodology o Cyclicity of Time → Time comes in cycles (Mayan calendar) vs unrepeated linear events o Temporal orientation → focusing on the past, present, or future • Space o Personalization → What you do vs who you are o Ingroup/outgroup orientation → Those that are ‘in’ have specific rights/benefits o Concrete vs abstract → Specific way to becoming part of the group vs Unclear how to get into the group o Group vs individual → ‘Space zones’ (social, personal, intimate in the West) • Change & Hostility o Cultural Borrowing → Borrow the concepts but change them to cultural likings o Racism → superior race o Cultural Hostility → culture of another that you find unappealing (Jews vs Muslims) Case Study – Bantu pg. 34 • Found out common problem/issue of the case (find the problem) • Identify how these issues are resolved by the Bantu problem (find the solution) o Find solution to the problem o Find how the solution compares to the Canadian solution (compare the two) • The common problem/issue of the case o Time has no meaning without an event (time orientation problem) • How it is solved o There is time that is useful, and time that is not, present • Compared to Canadian solution of time orientation o All time has meaning and purpose • “Your language shapes the way you see the world” Whorfian Hypothesis o Languages with formal/informal  More predisposed to see people in terms of class or status difference o Languages with words directly used for foreigners (Japanese)  Hiragana and Katakana; Nihon-jin and Gai-jin o Spanish, French, Italian ‘romance languages’ shape culture to be more relationship oriented; even objects have gendermore gender disparity • *Whorfian hypothesis, learning multiple languages changes view of world o Study of Nihon & Korean mangers, more internationalmore brand aware o Changes occurred in realm of organizational learning, not fundamental cultural assumptions Chapter 3 – Mindsets & Behaviours • “The concept of the self”  Personal trait elements; forecasts behavior o Independent/Interdependent  Unique, expressive, direct communication; belong, fit in, indirect  There will always be at least some overlap, hard to quantify • Convincing Chinese women they’re too hairy - Veet o Using culture to market (social embarrassment, promotion, husband.. etc) o Using Veet will make the group happier (by avoiding embarrassment) • Who am I? – Basic Problems o Is human nature good or bad?  How we treat unknown people; open vs closed book o How do we appraise others?  Using physical attributes (age, gender, appearance) o How do we judge ourselves?  Personal successes or Group contributions o How do we relate the individual to the group?  Social classes • Interaction Models – SelfOther – pg43 o Hofstede’s dimensions (cultural orientations) • How the self implies actions o Why act? o What is action?  You say you’re going to do it, or you do it; speech or deed o Thinking to action? o Wishes to action? Feelings? o Rules? Case Study – An American in Vietnam pg. 61 • Identify the two positions on the issue • Do you need extra information? What info? • Google: “Pacification” of Hamlets  related to Vietnam ; Look for Hofstede’s values for both countries ( • Which is more important: To USA stealing is a bigger crime; to Vietnamese losing face is the bigger crime. • American’s position: Vong put to death because of embezzling (stealing is the crime, not embarrassing) ; Vong put to death because he ‘embarrassed’ (lost face/ruined dignity) the general (a superior). What mattered (in Vietnam sense) is doing what was told • V:US Power Distance 2:1 ; Individualism 1:10 • History  Cultural Values (Get reward or Avoid punishment) o Vong should have been avoiding punishment rather than attempting to get a reward! (according to his culture, that is) o The problem: Americans set up the objectives, but they did not mesh with the Vietnamese culture. And now Vong has received the punishment for cultural difference without proper integration. • Side example: Victoria Secret didn’t work in China because, at least partly, the product could not be seen by the public. Chapter 4 – Consumer Behaviour • Culture & Consumer Behaviour o Consumers buy meanings, not just products  Sometimes to give more meaning to your life o Marketers communicate those meanings o Consumer goods might be vehicles for cultural meanings  Ie. Flavor might not matter much  1) Identify appropriate meanings 2) Apply them to product o 1) Hierarchy of needs  The challenge is that Maslow’s pyramid changes with different cultures • While Self-actualization is at the top in the Western World,
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