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Lecture 2

Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, Habituation

1 pages73 viewsFall 2014

Course Code
Psychology 1000
Petrusvander Velde

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Learning: A relatively-permanent change in behaviour caused by experience.
Associative VS Non-Associative(subconscious)
- Habituation : Decreased sensitivity
- Sensitization: Increased sensitivity.
Perception is directly associated with change. (See: boiled frog metaphor. Actually inaccurate, at one
point the frog just jumps out).
Types of learning:
Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Cognitive and Social Learning
Key difference between classical and operant conditioning: Classical = Circumstantial, Operant =
Classical Conditioning – See Pavlov. Ring the bell every time the dog eats and the dog will begin to
associate the bell with the food, so that ringing the bell makes it salivate even when there is no food.
See also:
Stimulus generalization (eg: the ring of a bell becomes ‘any kind of ringing sound’)
Stimulus Discrimination (eg: only the ring of this specific bell and no others elicits this
Operant Conditioning – See Skinner. Pigeon turns around when the thing is red and gets seeds.
Positive Reinforcement = addition of a good thing (you get chocolate if you do it)
Negative Reinforcement = remove a bad thing (you won’t have to do your chores if you do it)
Positive Punishment = Add a bad thing (because you did it, you have to mow the lawn now)
Negative punishment = Remove a good thing (because you did it, you won’t get dessert)
Reinforcement encourages, punishment discourages. Intermittent reinforcement --> Behaviours are
hard to extinguish. Effective punishment must be: Swift, consistent and appropiately aversive.
Operant Conditioning:
Fixed ratio schedule (eg: every time you jump 3 times, you get a cookie)
Variable ratio schedule (eg: you get a cookie if you jump 3 times. Or maybe 5. Or maybe 50.
Just keep jumping, it’ll come)
Fixed interval schedule (every time you do X and wait 5 minutes, you get a cookie)
Variable interval schedule (every time you do X and wait 5/3/50/11/some number of minutes,
you get a cookie)
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