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PSYC 3325 (30)
John Usher (30)

Development of Asylums.docx

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University of Lethbridge
PSYC 3325
John Usher

Development of Asylums th  until the end of the crusades in the 15 cen there were very few mental hospitals in Europe th th  confinement of the ill began in the 15 and 16 cen  leprosarium’s were converted to asylums –refuges established for the confinement and care of the mentally ill. Bethlehem and other early asylums  the Priory of St. Mary of Bethlehem was founded in 1243. hospital devoted to mentally ill  bedlam- a scene or place involving a wild uproar or confusion. The term is derived from the scenes at Bethlehem hospital in London, where unrestrained groups of mentally ill people interacted with each other  viewing violent patients was considered entertainment and tix to bedlam were sold  medical treatments were painful and crude.  Rush who practised medicine is considered father of American psychiatry. He believed that mental disorders were caused by an excess of blood in the brain. He drew great quantities of it. He thought many lunatics could be cured by being scared Moral Treatment  Pinel is a primary figure in the movement for humanitarianism treatment of the mentally ill in asylums.. was in charge of large asylum in Paris La Bicetre. He removed the chains of ppl. He treated them as sick ppl rather than as beats. They became calmer.  He thought they were normal ppl who should be approached with compassion and understanding and treated with dignity  The more humanitarianism treatment he reserves for the upper classes; patients of the lower classes were still subjected to terror and coercion as a means of control  Tuke proposed to the Society of Friends that it found its own institution. In 1796 the York retreat was established on a country estate. Mentally ill were able to talk to attendants  Moral treatment- a therapeutic regimen, introduced by Pinel during the French Revolution whereby mental patients were released from their restraints and were treated with compassion and dignity rather than with contempt and denigration. Patients had close contact with attendants who talked and read to them and encouraged them to engage in activity; residents led as normal lives as possible and in general took responsible for themselves  Drugs were used a lot. Most common treatment and included alcohol, cannabis, opium and choral hydrate (knockout drops). Second the outcomes were not favourable, fewer than one third were discharged as improved or recovered  Moral treatment was abandoned in the later part of the 19 cen.  Dorthea Dix crusader for improved conditions for people with mental illness helped effect this change.  Dix campaigned a lot to improve the lot of people with mental illness; she personally saw that 32 state hospitals were built in to take many patients whom the private ones could not accommodate. got no indiv attention which is a hallmark of moral treatment  Dr. Henry Stabb made efforts to institute moral treatments and non restraint at the lunatic asylum in st johns Newfoundland. But his efforts were hindered by inadequate financial resources. ASYLUMS IN CANADA  J.F Lehman wrote the 1 textbook published in Canada with a focus on care and control of mentally ill ppl. He recommended stringent discipline and harsh treatments. His views failed  Pioneers from great Britain who influenced to design and construction of asylums  Alberta was the last province to open an asylum  Almost 20% of the inmates died while in the institution, a large # due to general paresis of the insane and to a condition called phthisis  Two tie system medical system where rich get quality care  The history of development
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