Psychology 3325 Lecture Notes - Moral Treatment, General Paresis Of The Insane, Tuberculosis
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Development of Asylums
until the end of the crusades in the 15th cen there were very few mental hospitals in
confinement of the ill began in the 15th and 16th cen
leprosarium’s were converted to asylums –refuges established for the confinement and
care of the mentally ill.
Bethlehem and other early asylums
the Priory of St. Mary of Bethlehem was founded in 1243. hospital devoted to mentally
bedlam- a scene or place involving a wild uproar or confusion. The term is derived from
the scenes at Bethlehem hospital in London, where unrestrained groups of mentally ill
people interacted with each other
viewing violent patients was considered entertainment and tix to bedlam were sold
medical treatments were painful and crude.
Rush who practised medicine is considered father of American psychiatry. He believed
that mental disorders were caused by an excess of blood in the brain. He drew great
quantities of it. He thought many lunatics could be cured by being scared
Pinel is a primary figure in the movement for humanitarianism treatment of the
mentally ill in asylums.. was in charge of large asylum in Paris La Bicetre. He removed
the chains of ppl. He treated them as sick ppl rather than as beats. They became calmer.
He thought they were normal ppl who should be approached with compassion and
understanding and treated with dignity
The more humanitarianism treatment he reserves for the upper classes; patients of the
lower classes were still subjected to terror and coercion as a means of control
Tuke proposed to the Society of Friends that it found its own institution. In 1796 the
York retreat was established on a country estate. Mentally ill were able to talk to
Moral treatment- a therapeutic regimen, introduced by Pinel during the French
Revolution whereby mental patients were released from their restraints and were
treated with compassion and dignity rather than with contempt and denigration.
Patients had close contact with attendants who talked and read to them and
encouraged them to engage in activity; residents led as normal lives as possible and in
general took responsible for themselves
Drugs were used a lot. Most common treatment and included alcohol, cannabis, opium
and choral hydrate (knockout drops). Second the outcomes were not favourable, fewer
than one third were discharged as improved or recovered
Moral treatment was abandoned in the later part of the 19th cen.
Dorthea Dix crusader for improved conditions for people with mental illness helped
effect this change.
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