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Lecture 13

Bio 107 Lecture 13 October 30.docx

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Biology (Biological Sciences)
Frank Nargang

Bio 107 Lecture 13 October 30, 2012 1. Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain (in mitochondria) - Uses O a2 a final electron acceptor called aerobic respiration 2. Fermentation (in cytosol): - Converts pyruvate to waste products eg) ethanol, lactic acid - Different pathways in different organisms - Does not use oxygen or an electron transport chain Glycolysis - A series of enzyme catalyzed reactions, occurs in the cytosol - Net Result: 1 glucose  2 pyruvate + 2 ATP (6C) (3C) + 2 NADH + H + - Pathway: Fig. 9.9 p169 Note: - An energy investment phase (steps 1 and 5, 2 ATP invested) and an energy yielding phase (steps 6 and 10, 4 ATP synthesized) results in the net gain of 2 ATP (+ 2NADH + H and pyruvate) + - There is still a lot of metabolism (2NADH + H and pyruvate) to be done - The direct formation of ATP in the enzyme-catalyzed reactions is called substrate level phosphorylation. KNOW: - The pathway - The names of the molecules - Number of carbons (either 6 or 3) - Know which parts are energy investment and energy yielding phases - Reactions where ATP or NADH + H are consumed or made - Don’t have to know the structures or enzyme names  Possible routes for further metabolism 1) If oxygen present the pyruvate molecules and electrons of reduced NADH + H + enter mitochondria for oxidation by oxygen via an aerobic respiration pathway. 2) If there is no oxygen present a fermentation pathway occurs. Both possible routes restore NAD , if not done glycolysis would stop Because recall: 2 NAD + 2NADH + H + Glycolysis react+ons --------> 2 pyruvate - NAD is consumed in the reactions and is needed for glycolysis to occur. So if no NAD , glycolysis reactions stop Fermentation (no 0 pr2sent) - 2 common types of fermentation occurs, which one occurs depends on the organisms - First type is used in muscle cells doing extreme work. Oxygen is
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