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Nov 14 - Arousal, Stress, Anxiety.doc

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Physical Education and Sport
John Dunn

Nov 14 – Arousal, Stress, Anxiety (chapter 4) Anything from motivation not tested yet is fair game for the final. Final is going to be anything in perfectionism, arousal, stress, and anxiety, and aggression. So basically anything from the last midterm until the end of the course. 1.) Arousal (Activation) • Continuum of physiological and psychological activation (from deep sleep with a relaxed low heart rate to extreme excitement/frenzy where our arousal levels go through the roof) • Symptoms: increased heart rate; increased respiratory rate: increased adrenal flow; increased muscular “electrical potential” (+ “mind is racing”) • Note: identical arousal (activation) levels can have completely different affective meanings. Arousal levels can be the same but the affective level arousal can be interpreted differently. Positive and Negative Affective States • Ex. Low arousal: I feel relaxed (positive affective state – used to describe our arousal) • Ex of Low Arousal = I feel bored (negative affective state) • High arousal: I feel excited (positive affect – you feel pumped up) • Ex. High arousal: I feel scared (negative affect) • Ex. High arousal: I feel angry (negative affect) • There is an affective interpretation of arousal. We generally perceive arousal as negative affect. 2.) Anxiety • Negative/unpleasant emotional/affective state Anxiety is a multidimensional construct 2 key dimensions/components of anxiety are cognitive anxiety and somatic anxiety • Cognitive anxiety: worry, self-doubt, concern, apprehension • It is future oriented. Its anticipatory. It happens prior to competition. • Even anxiety after a bad performance is associated with what will this cost me in the future (ex. Will I get resigned?) • Somatic Anxiety (emotionality): physiological symptoms associated with “autonomic” nervous system (HR, respiration rate, sweating, butterflies, etc.) • Somatic anxiety is far more linked to arousal • If we experience somatic anxiety, we are interpreting our increased HR and butterflies in the tummy. State Anxiety • Unstable/fluctuating emotional state “characterised by subjective, consciously perceived feelings of apprehension and tension, accompanied by or associated with activation.. of the autonomic nervous system (spielberger) Perceived “Demands” of the Situation Influence A-state • “situation criticality” – based on performers interpretation of how important it is for you to succeed. • Threat to (endangerment of) personally meaningful goals • Ex. High ego/ low task (goal = favourable normative comparison), low perceived ability (no “avoidance opportunity) = Increased Anxious state Cognitive State Anxiety • Intensity and frequency of momentary worries and concerns Somatic State Anxiety • Intensity and frequency of perceived unpleasant physiological response to threatening situation • Ex. After sprinting 50 yards, my team is awarded a penalty kick which I will take. If my HR is high, I can say its h
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