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November 21 - anxiety.doc

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Physical Education and Sport
John Dunn

November 21 – Arousal, anxiety, and stress continued Relationship Between trait anxiety and state anxiety • Athletes with high competitive trait anxiety will generally experience higher state anxiety levels than athletes with low competitive trait anxiety in evaluative competitive situations. • But athletes with high competitive trait anxiety may not always experience high state anxiety in threatening situations. They may develop coping strategies Norman Endler’s “Differential Hypothesis” • Assumes different dimensions (“situational classes”) of trait anxiety • Endler proposes that the nature of the situational threat must be congruent with the trait anxiety dimension if state anxiety is to be experienced • Ex. If a coach doesn’t tell the team that the team they are playing is a powerhouse, because the optimism and naivety will reduce athlete anxiety • Through experience, athletes develpp coping strategies Stress and the Stress Process Stage 1 : when you as the performer is faced with some sort of demand in the environment. This demand may be physical or psychological. The stressor appears Stage 2: You look at the environment and ask if I can deal with the environment Stage 3 depending on ho you appraise the response, it can be tied into anxiety, arousal, muscle tensin, and attention hanges Stage 4: behavioural consequences (performance or outcome) Subtle physiological and psychological responses to stress can all come together to play a part in stress reponse. Stage 1: Athlete is confronted with an “Environmental Demand” • Demands are placed upon an individual’s physical and psychological capabilities • More often than not, the stressor is generated due to a psychological threat Stage 2: Athlete perceives/appraises the “nature” of the demand • Primary appraisal: is situation “threatening” (& important) to physical/psychological well-being (goals/values)? Is there something at stake? • Secondary appraisal: Do I feel that I have the ability/resources or competence to successfully deal with demands of the situation? • As a function of these 2 appraisals, will be a response to the demand. There could be a perception of the demand as a challenge (if I perform well, I will be rewarded. Even though something is threatened, you have an opportunity to succeed) however, the demand could also be seen as a threat, where we doubt if we are able to be successful in the demand • KNOW LAZARUS!!! Mediating influences that have a factor in whether we see something as a chellenge or threat: CTA – someone with high CTA will probably see a demand as a threat. Vice versa Experience – if you ahve done something before, you will know what to expect. You will know you can get through this and you can take it on. This will cause the athlete to see the demand as a challenge. Or you could say, man I got killed here before. And that could cause a threat. When an athlete constantly loses in big games, it becomes harder to be successful in those situations. Ex. Ovechkin loses in playoff games a lot, so its harder to win
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