PSYCO104 Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: Eusociality, Morning Sickness, Omnivore

21 views6 pages
4 Dec 2014
Department
Course
Professor

For unlimited access to Class Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.

November 5 2014
TL - 11
Inclusive Fitness
Features are not passed on between generations. Rather,
genes that give
rise to features are passed on.
Your genetics can be passed on by ensuring that others
besides yourself
survive and reproduce.
Classical Fitness:
An individuals actions on the reproductive
success of genetic relatives, weighted by genetic
similarity.
If we only consider classical fitness, some animal behavior
seems rather
unusual (e.g., eusocial insects, turkey wingman behavior).
In the case of eusocial insects (termites, bees), although
the workers are
sterile, the queen carries 100% of their genetic material.
Therefore it
is advantageus to the workers to participate and work for
the colony.
In other social structures, often a small cost to self can
result in a
return on that investment later on, in the form of 'favour
payback' even
when not related
By-products
Characteristics that are with
adaptations, but do not solve an adaptive
problem.
For example, Bellybuttons do not serve any specific
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
purpose, yet everyone
has them.
Is language an adaptation or a by-product?
It is a point of debate as to whether language
(structured, open-ended,
grammatical communication) solves any particular
adaptave problems, or
is simply a by-product of our ability for higher-order
cognation interacting with our ability to communicate.
Animal communication solves many
problems of survival. Animal communication
is usually agrammatical. Does grammar,
which is one of the defining features of
language, offer any additional adaptive
value, or merely a by-product of other
processes interacting with our
communication system?
Co-opted functions
Example: 4 cards [3, 8, Red, Orange]
Which cards need to be flipped to test the rule
of "If a card has an even
number, then the other side is red" ? A: 8 and
Orange.
Co-opted function is the idea that some behaviors
(e.g., engage
in logic and reason) are loose applications of our
ability to solve
much more specialized problems (e.g., cheater
detection).
Co-opted functions are not by-products as they do
provide some sort of survival/reproduction value. However,
they are also
likely not the result of specialization to deal with
prolonged,persistent selective pressures.
Noise
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class