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ANTH425 - January 13.pdf

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University of Calgary
ANTH 425
Hugh Notman

ANTH425 - Lectures Lecture #1 ▯ Week 2 - January 13, 2014▯ Course Logistics ▯ ▯ ▯ Paper Literature is important. ▯ Primate Pattern ▯ Sensory;▯and dental;▯ Four features Life history traits;▯ Large brain compared to body size. Skeletal and Not a specialized skeleton;▯ dental features Not entirely relevant to cognition. Features relevant Dependant on learning;▯ to cognition Primates have too big a brain for just basic function. “Problems” of Cognition ▯ How dow we know what we know? ▯ Difficult concept How are we aware of cognition?▯ How do we assess cognition in nonhumans? Hard to prove in animals. ▯ Cognition and Examples: deceptive behaviours, tool uses, ▯etc.▯ mental processes Anthropomorphism, parsimony and homology▯ There are various explanation for behaviours. Mentalistic approach - traditional approach.▯ Primate cognition Nonhuman primate cognition cannot be accessed so we measure behaviours.▯ * see example in slide. ▯ ▯ History/Psychological Theories ANTH425 - Lectures ▯ Primate cognition Animal psychology;▯ Outgrowth of human psychology Cogito Ergo Sum.▯ Inborn ideas.▯ ▯ Duality between matter and mind/spirit.▯ Cartesian dualism Animals have no mind. ▯ Humans have thoughts/mind, therefore are connected to God.▯ Animal have no connection to “spirit”. Origins of Species in 1859.▯ 1. Evolution;▯ 2. Mechanism of Natural Selection;▯ 3. Common descent.▯ Charles Darwin “Descent of Man” - there are psychological link between humans and primates if there is descent.▯ Mind is product of the body, it is not separate from the body.▯ Mind is a biological adaptation. George Romanes Comparative psychology;▯ (1882) Scala Naturae Early 20th century;▯ Behaviourism Mechanistic, focus on mechanism.▯ Focused on learning.▯ Simple behaviours are more parsimonious. Study chimpanzees.▯ Wolfgang Köhler Studies problem-solving in apes.▯ (1925) Studied “insight”. Robert Yerkes (1916) Father of primatology Goal
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