Manovich: New Media
Technologies for film and computing run parallel to each other
Photography: popular immediately
Film: "periodic trips into the dark relaxation chambers of movie theatres became a routine survival
Computing: over a century to reach general public awareness
Photography - everyone had a camera by the end of the year
Film - movies were a sport, the whole neighbourhood, friends, family went - environmental
entertainment, big crowds, long lineups
Computing - started about the same time as photography, there was a need for machines
- census workers found the first need for machines, by 1930's idea of computing as part of
science and mathematics was discovered.
- Alan Turing (1936 - concept of universal calculating machine)
- cracked the enigma code in WW2
- killed himself due to the world's lack of acceptance of his homosexuality
Development parallels technologies for film? They merge in digital media.
Abbate: Popularizing the Internet
Survey of national networks that led to Internet; history of decisions that led to universal public
- computing professionals are among the most detail-oriented people in the world
Convergence of local, national, private systems, change of focus from research to entertainment &
- internet started as a technological branch between two places (usually universities) - graphic interface became more prevalent, coding of pictures and print. (later 20th century)
- the whole concept took off when commercial companies began profiting on it, more profit to be
made = more money and research
Notice: gopher (name of information hierarchies), UNIX (graphic interfaces that make up most of the
technology that we have now), multimedia: all developed in 1970s.
- early computers were usually in military bases or universities -- they had the funds
- now, we have smartphones that have just as much (if not more) computing power than those
Note: early developers from U.S., U.K., France -- "hacker culture" with democratic roots.
- democracies fostered hackers
- "hackers" *used to be* people who take things apart and put them ba