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COMS 381 - Manovich.docx

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University of Calgary
Communications Studies
COMS 381
Marcia Epstein

Manovich: New Media Technologies for film and computing run parallel to each other Photography: popular immediately Film: "periodic trips into the dark relaxation chambers of movie theatres became a routine survival technique" Computing: over a century to reach general public awareness Photography - everyone had a camera by the end of the year Film - movies were a sport, the whole neighbourhood, friends, family went - environmental entertainment, big crowds, long lineups Computing - started about the same time as photography, there was a need for machines - census workers found the first need for machines, by 1930's idea of computing as part of science and mathematics was discovered. - Alan Turing (1936 - concept of universal calculating machine) - cracked the enigma code in WW2 - killed himself due to the world's lack of acceptance of his homosexuality Development parallels technologies for film? They merge in digital media. Abbate: Popularizing the Internet Survey of national networks that led to Internet; history of decisions that led to universal public access - computing professionals are among the most detail-oriented people in the world Convergence of local, national, private systems, change of focus from research to entertainment & convenience - internet started as a technological branch between two places (usually universities) - graphic interface became more prevalent, coding of pictures and print. (later 20th century) - the whole concept took off when commercial companies began profiting on it, more profit to be made = more money and research Notice: gopher (name of information hierarchies), UNIX (graphic interfaces that make up most of the technology that we have now), multimedia: all developed in 1970s. - early computers were usually in military bases or universities -- they had the funds - now, we have smartphones that have just as much (if not more) computing power than those giant computers Note: early developers from U.S., U.K., France -- "hacker culture" with democratic roots. - democracies fostered hackers - "hackers" *used to be* people who take things apart and put them ba
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