Name three key features of intelligence in the English Civil War, something like that.
Intellligence in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
Not entirely modern, but start to see certain things changing in how intel works.
French Revolution used to be regarded as one of the great turning points in history - esp. From french
historians and marxists.
Stems from political and fiscal crisis in France that the monarchy cannot manage – bankrupt without
means to solve the problem – try to call parliament to solve it. Hadn't been called in over 100 years
nationally, suddenly the french are playing a game of politics that no one remembers the rules for.
People with different non-monarchical political agendas. The regime collapses because it loses its
nerve, and chaos results as different factions fight it out and increasingly turn towards murder.
Chaos and a tendency for the left – most radical – to control policy. Dictatorship by oligarchy and then
increasingly military rule. Inability of french revolutionaries to manage to system that allows them to
be taken over by a military adventurer under Napoleon Bonaparte. Running a political system
significantly changed by the revolution.
Important points: in course of revolution, number of political ideas emerge which become
attractive to people across western and central europe. Possible to export slogans and ideas of the
revolution to non-french territories and gain political support. In 1790s its possible to find support in
Italy, Germany, what becomes Ireland, etc. Possibility for political warefare exists – forms dealt with
are primarily political, no religion attached. What makes the revolution modern is the great deal of
ideological conflict. In the early and mid 1790s there's massive revolts in France centered in Brittany.
Deaths in the civil war dwarf those occurring in the terror. French discover a recipe for military
success that no one else can follow. French adopt conscription for manpower. No one else can follow
this approach because it threatens an old feudal system. By end of Napoleonic wars, there is a move
towards volunteers. French, by overthrowing regime, are able to get out of fiscal dilemma by
refusing to pay debts. Debts are owed to the nobility – when ousting the nobility, they're also saying
they won't pay the debts anymore. The French open the door to recruiting officers from new social
classes due to the size of their army. Pros and cons – weakens french navy significantly. Navy
officers have to be highly educated and technically successful, making them difficult to train. Lose a lot
of train naval personnel. But in the army, plenty of new officers can arise. Napoleon able to ladder
climb in a way that wasn't previously possible. French revolutionary leaders launch wars in Europe
to solve internal political problems. French revolutionary leaders conclude foreign wars are the best
way to solve internal squabbles and problems. Strategic and military phenomenon that's highly
destabilizing to Europe. Nobody else can match the French in numbers. Numbers are hard to use –
Napoleon is driven to using these numbers wastefully. Napoleon does badly when outnumbered, but
usually wins when he has numbers on his side. “Aman like me can afford to lose 100,000 men a
month,” he once bragged. Massive military force trying to destabilize Europe, highly aggressive.
French gets strong quickly, rest of Europe can't compete and fight amongst each other.
Eventually, when backed against the wall, they realize they have to cut the French down to size. French trying to export revolution along with military campaigns. French regime uses political warfare
and subversion as an active tool from the beginning. Lot of support among other na