First moment in history we can use the mathematization of data to represent geospatial information.
Maps become an intel source, as do the modes of measurement which allow you to find exactly where
you are. Telescopes and other equipment become important adjuncts as well. Modes of measurement –
some technological means of expanding the human sense leap forward in strength and value and in
their importance to strategic planning, become normal mode of planning a campaign. First area where
western techniques have a significant impact on non-western civilizations. The Ottomans adopt
European reference points, as do the Chinese. Chinese cartography influenced by Western cartography.
Transformation in one important section of intelligence. States using this information to understand the
environment but also allowing specialists to do the things which nowadays we would expect intel
officers and general staff officers to do. When general staff officers emerge in 1900s, it's building on
the skeleton of the engineering approach.
Also has limits. Mathematizing geospatial information and topographical information, finding means to
represent what the world looks like. On the other hand, lot of limits to what one knows. In known
territory, your representations may not be great. Much of the world is unknown. Europeans may be able
to accurate certain sections fairly accurately, but other sections not at all. Problem of using maps at sea
remains highly problematic til mid 18 cthtury. East west problem is tolerable solvable, but the north
south problem less so. Not til mid 18 century you find beginnings of general solution. Finally, maps
are treated as state secrets. Lots of proprietorial information. In early 19 c., much of interior ofAsia
andAfrica is terra incognita. Beyond that, question is who gets access to state secrets. Problem of who
gets access remains significant to maps, illustration of problem that emerges as intel becomes more
important – who gets access, how do you disseminate it? Problems of current western SIGINT have
echos of all history from early 1500s onward. Question of how far you make available to consumers the
material you have on geospatial intel is beginning of problems that become very normal.
Early Modern Europe
Intelligence in the Early Modern Period – Mediterranean, in particular. Hapsbergs in Spain, last of
independent Italian citystates – Venice, and finally the Ottoman empire.
This is the first time in history when we can actually look back at documents and records from several
different states simulataneously and see how they're collecting and processing it.
Middle 1400s is where it starts, but we're focusing on the 1500s.
Renaissance Italy has records that show how states gather info on their neighbours, done in a
bureaucratized and national fashion, political warfare is the norm.
Hapsbergs in Spain, Venetians, Ottoman Empire. Junior Hapsburg dynasty inAustria associated with
the Spanish Hapsbergs.
Environment of 1540s and 1580s:
Superpower has emerged in Western Europe due to nature of dynastic politics. Have to appreciate that
kings matter and dynastic politics matter. What happens to a dynasty without an heir is open-ended.
What happened in Western European through dynastic accidents was that Hapsberg royal family gained control of kingdoms of Iberia, modern day Belgian and the Netherlands, substantial fractions of France,
and the domination ofAustia and position of Holy Roman Emperor.Also control through military
conquest much of Italy and large fractions of the New World. Potential superpower.
Beyond that, period marks division in European religion between the medieval catholic church and
number of different Protestant faiths. Catholic Reformation taking place, begins to adopt a crusading
attempt to drive back Protestantism. Ideological divisions between leaders of states and within them.
Ideological differences lead to room for political warfare.
In the Mediterranean, see same sort of overlap. Muslim populations under Hapsberg rule, in Iberia as
well, Christian populations under Ottoman rule, territories that the Hapsbergs dominated in Italy have
lots of people who don't want to be dominated by Spanish Hapsberg. Room for dissention.
People don't easily fit in one category or another as well – Jews, for example, scattered across middle
east, southern and central europe – tied by religion and able to connect in many different countries.
Military and Naval Intelligence
Great age of Ottoman naval expansion. Period of 50 years where Turkey is dynamic force. In our
period, the Turks dominate the eastern Med, Hapsbergs the West, and constant struggle over the centre.
Ottomans are constantly projecting power into the central mediterranean.
French will often allow Turkish navies to winter is southern France, who will then ravage territory on
coast under Hapsberg rule.
Period where Turkish periods are sent into the Mediterranean.
Two different kinds of naval ops: one year in year out no matter what, done by corsairs and crusaders.
Corsairs are legitimized pirates or free-enterprise navies (sell-sails?). Sail under flag of one state or
another. Generally listen to warnings or advice of political overlords, but isn't controlled by them on
daily basis. Constant crusade, naval war launched by corsairs against merchant marines.Also have
constant war by some Christian groups against Muslims. Knights of St. John in 1500s we last surviving
Crusader monastic order, view their task as constant crusade against Muslims, have ship for ship best
navy in the Mediterranean, constantly fighting Ottomans. Key issue for Ottomans and Hapsbergs is
what will Ottomans do? Have to have major campaign somewhere. Ottomans conceive of themselves
as state of Gahzis – holy warriors. Dilemma is fro