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Management Information Systems
MGIS 317
Ronald Schlenker

Chapter 21- operations management Introduction to operations planning: Operations planning- preparing input resources to supply products to meet expected demand. Operations planning- the importance of the marketing link Perhaps the key information needed by an operations manager when planning future productions levels is estimated or forecasts market demand. This is a crucial link-trying to match supply to potential demand. This process is called sales and operations planning. If the sales forecasts are reasonably accurate, then operations managers should be able to:  Match output closely to the demand levels  Keep stock levels to a minimum efficient level  Reduce wastage of production, e.g. by perishable products being rejected due to being too old.  Employ and keep busy a stable, appropriate number of staff. The need for flexibility If actual demand turns out to be either higher or lower than forecast, there is a great need for “operational flexibility” Operational flexibility- the ability of a business to vary both the level of production and the range of products following changed in customer demand. This flexibility can be achieved in a number of ways: A brief outline of these methods is to:  Increase capacity by extending buildings and buying more equipment- this is an expensive option  Hold high stocks- but these can be damaged and there is an opportunity cost to the capital tied up.  Have flexible and adaptable labour force- using temporary, part-time contracts reduces fixed salary costs but may reduce worker motivation. Process Innovation Process Innovation- the use of a new or much improved production method or service delivery method. Some examples may include:  Robots in manufacturing  Faster machines to manufacture microchips for computers  Computer tracking of stock, e.g. by using bar codes and scanners.  Using the internet to track the exact location of parcels being delivered worldwide. Production Methods There are several different ways in which goods and services can be produced. They are usually classified into:  Job production  Batch production  Flow production  Mass customisation Job Production Job production- producing a one-off item specially designed for the customer. This is normally used for the production o
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