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Lecture

Female Reproductive Problems.docx

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Department
Nursing
Course
NURS 201
Professor
Marywyatt Sindlinger
Semester
Winter

Description
Female Reproductive Problems INFERTILITY  Infertility is the inability to achieve a pregnancy after at least 1 year of regular intercourse without contraceptio.  Diagnostic studies include ovulatory studies, tubal patency studies, and postcoital studies.  Management depends on the cause and can include supplemental hormone therapy and antibiotic therapy. ABORTION  Abortion is the loss or termination of a pregnancy before the fetus has developed to a state of viability.  Abortions are classified as spontaneous (those occurring naturally) or induced (those occurring as a result of mechanical or medical intervention).  Nursing management includes the use of comfort measures to provide needed physical and mental rest. The support of the patient and her family is essential. PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME  Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common disorder of physical and psychologic symptoms during the last few days of the menstrual cycle and before onset of menstruation.  PMS is thought to have a biologic trigger with compounding psychosocial factors.  Physical symptoms include breast discomfort, abdominal bloating, sensation of weight gain, episodes of binge eating, and headache. Anxiety, depression, irritability, and mood swings are some of the emotional symptoms.  No single treatment is available to relieve symptoms. The goal is to reduce symptom severity. DYSMENORRHEA  Dysmenorrhea is abdominal cramping pain or discomfort associated with menstrual flow. o Primary dysmenorrhea is caused by an excess of prostaglandin F α2(PGF α)2 and/or an increased sensitivity to it. o Secondary dysmenorrhea is acquired after adolescence; pelvic causes include endometriosis, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, and uterine fibroids.  Treatment for primary dysmenorrhea includes heat, exercise, and drug therapy. For secondary dysmenorrhea, it depends on the cause.  Abnormal vaginal or uterine bleeding is a common gynecologic concern and is caused by dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, infection, and stressful changes in lifestyle. Treatment varies depending on the cause but can include drug therapy and surgery. ECTOPIC PREGNANCY  An ectopic pregnancy is the implantation of the fertilized ovum anywhere outside the uterine cavity.  Any blockage of the tube or reduction of tubal peristalsis that impedes or delays the zygote passing to the uterine cavity can result in tubal implantation.  Risk factors include a history of pelvic inflammatory disease, prior ectopic pregnancy, current progestin-releasing intrauterine device (IUD), progestin-only birth control failure, and prior pelvic or tubal surgery.  Eventually the tube ruptures with acute peritoneal symptoms of abdominal/ pelvic pain, missed menses, and irregular vaginal bleeding. Less acute symptoms begin 6 to 8 weeks after last normal menstrual period.  Surgery is usually the treatment. MENOPAUSE  Menopause is the physiologic cessation of menses associated with declining ovarian function. It is usually considered complete after 1 year of amenorrhea.  Ovarian changes start the cascade of events that result in menopause.  Premenopausal symptoms include hot flashes, irregular vaginal bleeding, fat redistribution, and a tendency to gain weight.  Treatment might include hormone replacement, drug therapy, and alternative therapies. INFECTION AND INFLAMMATION OF VAGINA, CERVIX, AND VULVA  Infection and inflammation of vagina, cervix, and vulva commonly occur when natural defenses of the acid vaginal secretions (maintained by sufficient estrogen levels
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