Class Notes (834,971)
Canada (508,836)
Nursing (189)
NURS 201 (30)

Female Reproductive Problems.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

NURS 201
Marywyatt Sindlinger

Female Reproductive Problems INFERTILITY  Infertility is the inability to achieve a pregnancy after at least 1 year of regular intercourse without contraceptio.  Diagnostic studies include ovulatory studies, tubal patency studies, and postcoital studies.  Management depends on the cause and can include supplemental hormone therapy and antibiotic therapy. ABORTION  Abortion is the loss or termination of a pregnancy before the fetus has developed to a state of viability.  Abortions are classified as spontaneous (those occurring naturally) or induced (those occurring as a result of mechanical or medical intervention).  Nursing management includes the use of comfort measures to provide needed physical and mental rest. The support of the patient and her family is essential. PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME  Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common disorder of physical and psychologic symptoms during the last few days of the menstrual cycle and before onset of menstruation.  PMS is thought to have a biologic trigger with compounding psychosocial factors.  Physical symptoms include breast discomfort, abdominal bloating, sensation of weight gain, episodes of binge eating, and headache. Anxiety, depression, irritability, and mood swings are some of the emotional symptoms.  No single treatment is available to relieve symptoms. The goal is to reduce symptom severity. DYSMENORRHEA  Dysmenorrhea is abdominal cramping pain or discomfort associated with menstrual flow. o Primary dysmenorrhea is caused by an excess of prostaglandin F α2(PGF α)2 and/or an increased sensitivity to it. o Secondary dysmenorrhea is acquired after adolescence; pelvic causes include endometriosis, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, and uterine fibroids.  Treatment for primary dysmenorrhea includes heat, exercise, and drug therapy. For secondary dysmenorrhea, it depends on the cause.  Abnormal vaginal or uterine bleeding is a common gynecologic concern and is caused by dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, infection, and stressful changes in lifestyle. Treatment varies depending on the cause but can include drug therapy and surgery. ECTOPIC PREGNANCY  An ectopic pregnancy is the implantation of the fertilized ovum anywhere outside the uterine cavity.  Any blockage of the tube or reduction of tubal peristalsis that impedes or delays the zygote passing to the uterine cavity can result in tubal implantation.  Risk factors include a history of pelvic inflammatory disease, prior ectopic pregnancy, current progestin-releasing intrauterine device (IUD), progestin-only birth control failure, and prior pelvic or tubal surgery.  Eventually the tube ruptures with acute peritoneal symptoms of abdominal/ pelvic pain, missed menses, and irregular vaginal bleeding. Less acute symptoms begin 6 to 8 weeks after last normal menstrual period.  Surgery is usually the treatment. MENOPAUSE  Menopause is the physiologic cessation of menses associated with declining ovarian function. It is usually considered complete after 1 year of amenorrhea.  Ovarian changes start the cascade of events that result in menopause.  Premenopausal symptoms include hot flashes, irregular vaginal bleeding, fat redistribution, and a tendency to gain weight.  Treatment might include hormone replacement, drug therapy, and alternative therapies. INFECTION AND INFLAMMATION OF VAGINA, CERVIX, AND VULVA  Infection and inflammation of vagina, cervix, and vulva commonly occur when natural defenses of the acid vaginal secretions (maintained by sufficient estrogen levels
More Less

Related notes for NURS 201

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.