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Musculoskeletal System.docx

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NURS 201
Marywyatt Sindlinger

Musculoskeletal System STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS  The main functions of bone are support, protection of internal organs, voluntary movement, blood cell production, and mineral storage.  Cylinder-shaped structural units (haversian systems) fit closely together in compact bone, creating a dense bone structure.  Types of bone cells include osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. o Osteoblasts synthesize organic bone matrix (collagen) and are the basic bone- forming cells. o Osteocytes are the mature bone cells. o Osteoclasts participate in bone remodeling by assisting in the breakdown of bone tissue. o Bone remodeling is removal of old bone by osteoclasts (resorption) and the deposition of new bone by osteoblasts (ossification).  Each long bone consists of the epiphysis, diaphysis, and metaphysis. o Epiphysis, the widened area found at end of a long bone, is composed of cancellous bone. Epiphysis is the location of muscle attachment. o Diaphysis is the main shaft of the bone. It provides structural support and is composed of compact bone. Marrow is in the center. o Metaphysis is the flared area of cancellous bone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis.  A joint (articulation) is where ends of two bones are in proximity and move in relation to each other. Joints are classified according to degree of movement they allow.  Cartilage is a rigid connective tissue in synovial joints that serves as support for soft tissue and provides articular surface for joint movement. Types of cartilage tissue include hyaline, elastic, and fibrous.  Types of muscle tissue are cardiac (striated, involuntary), smooth (nonstriated, involuntary), and skeletal (striated, voluntary) muscle.  A nerve fiber and the skeletal muscle fibers it stimulates are called a motor endplate. The junction between axon of nerve cell and adjacent muscle cell is called the myoneural or neuromuscular junction.  Ligaments and tendons are composed of dense, fibrous connective tissue. Tendons attach muscles to bones, and ligaments connect bones to bones.  Fascia is defined as layers of connective tissue with intermeshed fibers that can withstand limited stretching.  Bursae are small sacs of connective tissue lined with synovial membrane and contain synovial fluid. Assessment  Many functional problems experienced by the aging adult relate to changes of the musculoskeletal system. o Increased bone resorption an
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