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Lecture 8

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NURS 287
Rick Nilson

LECTURE 8: HERNIA  A hernia is a protrusion of a viscus through an abnormal opening or a weakened area in the wall of the cavity in which it is normally contained.  If the hernia becomes strangulated, the patient will experience severe pain and symptoms of a bowel obstruction, such as vomiting, cramping abdominal pain, and distention. MALABSORPTION SYNDROME  Malabsorption results from impaired absorption of fats, carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, and vitamins.  Causes of malabsorption include the following: o Biochemical or enzyme deficiencies o Bacterial proliferation o Disruption of small intestine mucosa o Disturbed lymphatic and vascular circulation o Surface area loss Celiac Disease  Three factors necessary for the development of celiac disease (gluten intolerance) are genetic predisposition, gluten ingestion, and an immune-mediated response.  Early diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease can prevent complications such as cancer (e.g., intestinal lymphoma), osteoporosis, and possibly other autoimmune diseases.  Celiac disease is treated with lifelong avoidance of dietary gluten. Wheat, barley, oats, and rye products must be avoided. LACTASE DEFICIENCY  The symptoms of lactose intolerance include bloating, flatulence, cramping abdominal pain, and diarrhea. They usually occur within 30 minutes to several hours after drinking a glass of milk or ingesting a milk product.  Treatment consists of eliminating lactose from
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