LECTURE 8: HERNIA
A hernia is a protrusion of a viscus through an abnormal opening or a weakened area in
the wall of the cavity in which it is normally contained.
If the hernia becomes strangulated, the patient will experience severe pain and symptoms
of a bowel obstruction, such as vomiting, cramping abdominal pain, and distention.
Malabsorption results from impaired absorption of fats, carbohydrates, proteins, minerals,
Causes of malabsorption include the following:
o Biochemical or enzyme deficiencies
o Bacterial proliferation
o Disruption of small intestine mucosa
o Disturbed lymphatic and vascular circulation
o Surface area loss
Three factors necessary for the development of celiac disease (gluten intolerance) are
genetic predisposition, gluten ingestion, and an immune-mediated response.
Early diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease can prevent complications such as cancer
(e.g., intestinal lymphoma), osteoporosis, and possibly other autoimmune diseases.
Celiac disease is treated with lifelong avoidance of dietary gluten. Wheat, barley, oats,
and rye products must be avoided.
The symptoms of lactose intolerance include bloating, flatulence, cramping abdominal
pain, and diarrhea. They usually occur within 30 minutes to several hours after drinking a
glass of milk or ingesting a milk product.
Treatment consists of eliminating lactose from